Scanning Soft X-ray Microscopy at the Brookhaven Lightsource

  • Janos Kirz
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 137)


The project I am about to describe is the work of several people. My collaborators in the construction and operation of the instrument include Harvey Rarback and John Kenney from Stony Brook, Malcolm Howells from Brookhaven, Ralph Feder and David Sayre from IBM. The critical optical element, the Fresnel zoneplate, was fabricated for us at IBM under the direction of Dieter Kern and Philip Chang. We received invaluable help at various times from Roy Rosser, Michael Iarocci, Chris Jacobsen, Waiman Ng, Wen Bing Yun, and Bing Xin Yang. Several scientists came to join us with specimens of biological interest. I wish to mention particularly Francoise Cinotti, Jonathan Costa, James Hamos, Ed Lattman, and Jerry Pine, and express to them our gratitude for their interest, encouragement, and patience. This project would not have gotten off the ground without the generous support and encouragement from the management and the staff of the National Synchrotron Light Source.


Silicon Nitride Storage Ring Zone Plate National Synchrotron Light Source Cesium Iodide 
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The Beginnings

  1. 1.
    V. E. Cosslett and W. C. Nixon, X-ray microscopy (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1960). This is a thorough review of the history and status of X-ray microscopy as it stood twenty-five years ago. A rich source of references to earlier work.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. V. Baez, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 756 (1952), and 51, 405 (1961). The first suggestion, and the first use of a zoneplate suitable for X-ray imaging.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    G. Schmahl and D. Rudolph, Optik 29, 577 (1969). The first viable scheme for making high resolution zoneplates, and the introduction of the apodization idea.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    P. Horowitz and J. A. Howell, Science 178, 608 (1972). The first use of synchrotron radiation for X- ray microscopy, and the first implementation of a scanning instrument in the field.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    D. Sayre, Proposal for the Utilization of Electron Beam Technology in the Fabrication of an Image Forming Device for the Soft X-Ray Region, IBM Research Report RC-3974, Yorktown Hgts, N. Y. (1972). The first suggestion for the method used to make our zoneplate.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, Appl. Opt. 8, 1883 (1976). The first soft X-ray microscope to use zoneplate focusing and a synchrotron radiation source.Google Scholar

Present Status

  1. 7.
    G. Schmahl and D. Rudolph, editors, X-Ray Microscopy, Springer Series in Optical Sciences Vol 43, 1984. This is the proceedings of a symposium held in Gottingen, in September 1983. All major projects in soft X-ray microscopy are discussed. In particular the article in this volume by Niemann and the one by Spiller describe the other scanning microscopes nearing completion.Google Scholar
  2. 8.
    E. Spiller, in Handbook on Synchrotron Radiation, Vol.1, edited by E. E. Koch (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1983 ). An excellent review, with particularly valuable sections on X-ray optics, and the relevant material properties.Google Scholar
  3. 9.
    J. Kirz and H. Rarback, Soft X-Ray Microscopes, Rev. Sci. Instr. 56, 1 (1985). Review article with extensive references.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 10.
    R. Feder, J. Wm. McGowan and D. Shinozaki, editors, this volume. ( Plenum, 1985 ). It will surely contain the latest information.Google Scholar
  5. 11.
    H. Rarback, The Development of a Scanning Soft X-Ray Microscope, Ph, D. Dissertation, SUNY at Stony Brook, N. Y. 1983 (unpublished). Detailed description of the instrument.Google Scholar
  6. 12.
    D. Kern, P. Coane, R. Acosta, T.H.P. Chang, R. Feder, P. Houzego, W. Molzen, J. Powers, A. Speth, R. Viswanathan, J. Kirz, H. Rarback and J. Kenney, in Science with Soft X-rays, edited by F. J. Himpsel and R. Klaffky, SPIE Conference Proceedings Vol. 447 ( SPIE, Bellingham, Wa. 1984 ). Details concerning the fabrication and performance of the zoneplate used in our microscope.Google Scholar
  7. 13.
    H. Rarback, J. M. Kenney, J. Kirz, M. Ho wells, P. Chang, P. J. Coane, R. Feder, P. J. Houzego, D. Kern and D. Sayre, in Ref. 8. Further details on the resolution of the instrument.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janos Kirz
    • 1
  1. 1.Physics DepartmentSUNY at Stony BrookUSA

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