Neurobehavioral Effects in Human and Animal Offspring following Prenatal Exposure to Methadone

  • Donald E. Hutchings
  • William P. Fifer

Abstract

Descriptions in the medical literature of human neonates undergoing withdrawal following maternal opiate abuse during pregnancy date to the latter part of the nineteenth century (Goodfriend, Shey, & Klein, 1956). Because of an extremely high mortality rate among infants showing severe symptoms, the major concern through the 1960s was with diagnosis, treatment, and management of the passively addicted newborn. In the United States, the opiate most commonly abused—then, as now—is heroin.

Keywords

Cocaine Diarrhea Hunt Trench Rosen 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Cantwell, D. P. Familial-genetic research with hyperactive children. In D. P. Cantwell (Ed.), The hyperactive child: Diagnosis, management, current research. New York: Spectrum, 1975.Google Scholar
  2. Chasnoff, I. J., & Burns, W. J. The Moro reaction: A scoring system for neonatal narcotic withdrawal. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1984, 26, 484–489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chasnoff, I. J., Hatcher, R., & Burns, W. J. Early growth patterns of methadone-addicted infants. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 1980, 134, 1040–1051.Google Scholar
  4. DeCasper, A. J., & Fifer, W. P. Of human bonding: Newborns prefer their mothers’ voices. Science, 1980, 208, 1174–1176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dinges, D. E., Davis, M. M., & Glass, P. Fetal exposure to narcotics: Neonatal sleep as a measure of nervous system disturbance. Science, 1980, 209, 619–621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Einhorn, A. H. Neonatal narcotic addiction. In H. L. Barnett & A. H. Einhorn (Eds.), Pediatrics. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1972.Google Scholar
  7. Goodfriend, W. J., Shey, I. A., & Klein, M. D. The effects of maternal narcotics addiction in the newborn. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1956, 71, 29–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hofer, M. A. The roots of human behavior. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1981.Google Scholar
  9. Hofer, M. A. The mother-infant interaction as a regulator of infant physiology and behavior. In L. A. Rosenblum & H. Moltz (Eds.), Symbiosis in Parent-Offspring Interactions. New York: Plenum Publishing, 1983.Google Scholar
  10. Householder, J., Hatcher, R., Burns, W., & Chasnoff, I. Infants born to narcotic-addicted mothers. Psychological Bulletin, 1982, 92, 453–468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hutchings, D. E. Behavioral teratology: A new frontier in neurobehavioral research. In E. M. Johnson & D. M. Kochhar (Eds.), Teratogenesis and reproductive toxicology. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1983.Google Scholar
  12. Hutchings, D. E. Methadone: A treatment for drug addiction. New York: Chelsea House, 1985. (a)Google Scholar
  13. Hutchings, D. E. Prenatal opioid exposure and the problem of causal inference. In T. M. Pinkert (Ed.), Current research on the consequences of maternal drug use. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Series (DHHS Publication No. ADM 85-1400). Washington D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 1985, 6–19. (b)Google Scholar
  14. Hutchings, D. E., Hunt, H. F., Towey, J. P., Rosen, T. S., & Gorinson, H. S. Methadone during pregnancy in the rat: Dose level effects on maternal and perinatal mortality and growth in the offspring. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1976, 197, 171–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hutchings, D. E., Feraru, E., Gorinson, H. S., & Golden, R. R. Effects of prenatal methadone on the rest- activity cycle of the pre-weanling rat. Neurobehavioral Toxicology, 1979, 1, 33–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hutchings, D. E., Towey, J. P., Gorinson, H. S., & Hunt, H. F. Methadone during pregnancy: Assessment of behavioral effects in the rat offspring. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1979, 208, 106–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hutchings, D. E., Towey, J. P., & Bodnarenko, S. R. Effects of prenatal methadone on the activity level in the pre-weanling rat. Neurobehavioral Toxicology, 1980, 2, 331–335.Google Scholar
  18. Kaltenbach, K., & Finnegan, L. P. Developmental outcome of children born to methadone maintained women: A review of longitudinal studies. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, 1984, 6, 271–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kandall, S. R. Late complications in passively addicted infants. In J. L. Rementaria (Ed.), Drug abuse in pregnancy and neonatal effects. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby, 1977.Google Scholar
  20. Levitt, M., Hutchings, D. E., Bodnarenko, S. R., & Leicach, L. L. Postnatal persistence of methadone following prenatal exposure in the rat. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, 1982, 4, 383–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Levitt, M., Hutchings, D. E., & Bodnarenko, S. R. The fate of tritium derived from prenatally administered 3H methadone in neonatal rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 1983, 19, 1051–1053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lodge, A. Developmental findings with infants born to mothers on methadone maintenance: A preliminary report. In NIDA: Symposium on comprehensive health care for addicted families and their children, May 20–21, 1976.Google Scholar
  23. Mann, L. I. Critique. In J. R. Cooper, F. Altman, B. S. Brown, & D. Czechowicz (Eds.), Research on the treatment of narcotic addiction: State of the art. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1983.Google Scholar
  24. Martin, W. R., Jasinski, D. R., Haertzen, C. A., Kay, D. C., Jones, B. E., Mansky, P. A., & Carpenter, R. W. Methadone—A réévaluation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1973, 28, 286–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Middaugh, L. D., & Simpson, L. W. Prenatal maternal methadone effects on pregnant C57BL/6 mice and their offspring. Neurobehavioral Toxicology, 1980, 2, 307–313.Google Scholar
  26. Peters, M. A. Effect of various routes of administration on the distribution of methadone in pregnant and nonpregnant rats. Federation Proceedings, 1974, 33, 1781 (abstract).Google Scholar
  27. Rosen, T. S., & Pippenger, C. E. Pharmacological observations on the neonatal withdrawal syndrome. Journal of Pediatrics, 1976, 88, 104.Google Scholar
  28. Rounsaville, B. J., Novelly, R. A., & Kleber, H. D. Neuropsychological impairment in opiate addicts: Risk factors. In R. B. Millman, P. Cushman, & J. H. Lowinson (Eds.), Research developments in drug and alcohol use. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1981, 362, 79–90.Google Scholar
  29. Schulman, C. A. Alterations of the sleep cycle in heroin-addicted and “suspect” newborns. Neuropadiatrie, 1969, 1, 89–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sisson, T. R. C., Wickler, M., Tsai, P., & Rao, I. P. Effect of narcotic withdrawal on neonatal sleep patterns. Pediatric Research, 1974, 8, 451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Slotkin, T. A. Critique. In J. R. Cooper, F. Altman, B. S. Brown, & D. Czechowicz (Eds.), Research on the treatment of narcotic addiction: State of the art. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1983.Google Scholar
  32. Sparber, S. B. Preclinical perinatal and developmental effects of methadone: Behavioral and biochemical aspects. In J. R. Cooper, F. Altman, B. S. Brown, & D. Czechowicz (Eds.), Research on the treatment of narcotic addiction: State of the art. Rockville, MD: National Insttiute on Drug Abuse, 1983.Google Scholar
  33. Strauss, M. E., Lessen-Firestone, J. K., Chavez, C. J., & Stryker, J. C. Children of methadone-treated women at five years of age. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior (Supplement), 1979, 11, 3–6.Google Scholar
  34. Szeto, H. Disposition and metabolism during the prenatal period of methadone and other drugs used in narcotic addiction treatment. In J. R. Cooper, F. Altman, B. S. Brown, & D. Czechowicz (Eds.), Research on the treatment of narcotic addiction: State of the art. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1983.Google Scholar
  35. Weiss, G., Hechtman, L., Perlman, T., Hopkins, J., & Wener, A. Hyperactives as young adults. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1979, 36, 675–681.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Wilson, G., Desmond, M., & Vemiaud, W. Early development of infants of heroin-addicted mothers. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 1973, 126, 457–462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Zagon, I. S. Critique. In J. R. Cooper, F. Altman, B. S. Brown, & D. Czechowicz (Eds.), Research on the treatment of narcotic addiction: State of the art. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1983.Google Scholar
  38. Zagon, I. S., & McLaughlin, P. J. Comparative effects of postnatal undernutrition and methadone exposure on protein and nucleic acid contents of the brain and cerebellum in rats. Developmental Neuroscience, 1982, 5, 385–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zagon, I. S., McLaughlin, P. J., Weaver, D. J., & Zagon, E. Opiates, endorphins and the developing organism: A comprehensive bibliography. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 1982, 6, 439–479.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald E. Hutchings
    • 1
  • William P. Fifer
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Developmental Psychobiology, New York State Psychiatric Institute, and Departments of Psychiatry and PediatricsColumbia College of Physicians and SurgeonsNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Developmental Psychobiology, New York State Psychiatric Institute, and Department of PsychiatryColumbia College of Physicians and SurgeonsNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations