Advertisement

Effects of Prenatal Irradiation on Postnatal Psychophysiological Development

  • Ronald Paul Jensh

Abstract

Ionizing radiation is a well-established teratogen. For almost 50 years, it has been known to cause congenital malformations (Job, Leibold, & Fitzmaurice, 1935). Only recently, nonionizing radiation has been observed to cause birth defects. The method of action of this form of radiation appears to be related to heat stress, which is itself a well-known teratogen. A discussion of this phenomenon has been presented in numerous papers (Edwards, 1968, 1969; Fernandez-Cano, 1958; Howarth, 1969; Hsu, 1948). This chapter describes the nature of ionizing and nonionizing radiation and presents a review of the literature concerning postnatal behavioral alterations induced by prenatal exposure to radiation.

Keywords

Environmental Enrichment Prenatal Exposure High Nervous Activity Experimental Neurology Comparative Physiology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Altman, J., & Nicholson, J. L. Cell pyknosis in the cerebellar cortex of infant rats following low-level x- irradiation. Radiation Research, 1971, 46, 476–489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altman, J., Anderson, W. J., & Wright, K. A. Reconstruction of the external granular layer of the cerebellar cortex in infant rats after low-level x-irradiation. Anatomical Record, 1969, 163, 453–472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, W. J., & Altman, J. Retardation of cerebellar and motor development in rats by focal x-irradiation beginning at 4 days. Physiology and Behavior, 1972, 8, 57–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beaumont, H. Effect of irradiation during foetal life on the subsequent structure and secretory activity of the gonads. Journal of Endocrinology, 1962, 24, 325–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brent, R. L. Radiation teratogenesis. Teratology, 1980, 21, 281–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brunner, R. L., & Altman, J. The effects of interference with the maturation of the cerebellum and hippocampus on the development of adult behavior. In D. G. Stein, J. J. Rosen, & N. Butters (Eds.), Plasticity and recovery of function in the central nervous system. New York: Academic Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  7. Cabe, P. A., & McRee, E. I. Behavioral teratological effects of microwave radiation in Japanese quail (coturnix corturnix japonica): An exploratory study. Neurobehavioral Toxicology, 1980, 2 (4), 291–296.Google Scholar
  8. Chernovetz, M. E., Justesen, D. R., King, H. W., & Wagner, J. E. Teratology: Survival and reversal learning after fetal irradiation of mice by 2450 MHz microwave energy. Journal of Microwave Power, 1975, 10, 391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Chesnokova, A. P. The study of nervous mechanisms of the higher nervous activity disturbance of white rats in the early stage of ontogenesis in the action of a single dose of ionizing radiation. Medical Radiology, 1959, 4 (4), 16–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cooke, J. P., Brown, S. O., & Krise, G. M. Prenatal chronicgamma irradiation and audiogenic seizures in rats. Experimental Neurology, 1964, 9, 243–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. D’Amato, C. J., & Hicks, S. P. Development of the motor system: Effects of radiation on developing corticospinal neurons and motor function. Experimental Neurology, 1980, 70, 1–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Deagle, J., & Furchtgott, E. Passive avoidance in prenatally x-irradiated rats. Developmental Psychobiology, 1968, 1, 90–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dobbing, J., Hopewell, J. W., Lynch, A., & Sands, J. Vulnerability of developing brain: I. Some lasting effects of x-irradiation. Experimental Neurology, 1970, 28, 442–449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ebels, E. J. Studies on ectopic granule cells in the cerebellar cortex—with a hypothesis as to their aetiology and pathogenesis. Acta Neuropathologica, 1972, 27, 117–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Edwards, M. J. Congenital malformations in the rat following induced hyperthermia during gestation. Teratology, 1968, 1, 173–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Edwards, M. J. Congenital defects in guinea pigs: Fetal resorptions, abortions, and malformations following induced hyperthermia during early gestation. Teratology, 1969, 2, 313–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Erickson, B., Murphree, R., & Andrews, J. Effects of prenatal gamma irradiation on the germ cells of the male pig. Radiation Research, 1963, 20, 640–648.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ershoff, B., & Brat, V. Comparative effects of prenatal gamma radiation and x-irradiation on the reproductive system of the rat. American Journal of Physiology, 1960, 198, 1119–1122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Fernandez-Cano, L. Effect of increase or decrease of body temperature and hypoxia on pregnancy in the rat. Fertility and Sterility, 1958, 9, 455–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Fowler, G., Hicks, S. P., D’Amato, C. J., & Beach, F. A. Effects of fetal irradiation on behavior in the adult rat. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology, 1962, 55, 309–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Furchtgott, E. Behavioral effects of ionizing radiations: 1955–61. Psychological Bulletin, 1963, 60 (2), 157–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Furchtgott, E., & Echols, M. Activity and emotionality in pre- and neonatally x-irradiated rats. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology, 1958, 51, 541–545. (a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Furchtgott, E., & Echols, M. Locomotor coordination following pre- and neonatal x-irradiation. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology, 1958, 51, 292–294. (b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Furchtgott, E., & Wechkin, S. Avoidance conditioning as a function of prenatal irradiation and age. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology, 1962, 55, 69–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Furchtgott, E., Echols, M., & Openshaw, J. W. Maze learning in pre- and neonatally x-irradiated rats. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology, 1958, 51, 178–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Furchtgott, E., Taiken, R. S., & Draper, D. O. Open-field behavior and heart rate in prenatally x-irradiated rats. Teratology, 1968, 1, 201–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Furchtgott, E., Jones, J. R., Tacker, S., & Deagle, J. Aversive conditioning in prenatally x-irradiated rats. Physiology and Behavior, 1970, 5, 571–576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gazzara, R. A., & Altman, J. Early postnatal x-irradiation of the hippocampus and discrimination learning in adult rats. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology, 1981, 95 (3), 484–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gilmore, S. A. Delayed myelination of neonatal rat spinal cord induced by x-irradiation. Neurology, 1966, 16, 749–753.Google Scholar
  30. Graham, T. M., Marks, A., & Ershoff, B. H. Effects of prenatal x-irradiation on discrimination learning in the rat. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 1959, 100, 78–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Haefner, K. Der einfluss von roentgenbestrahlung wahrend der embryonalentwicklung auf das labyrint verhalten der maus. Fortschritte auf dem Gebieteder Röntgenstrahlen, 1960, 93, 648–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hicks, S. P. Some effects of ionizing radiation and metabolic inhibition on the developing mammalian nervous system. Journal of Pediatrics, 1952, 40, 489–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hicks, S. P., & D’Amato, C. J. Development of the motor system: Hopping rats produced by prenatal irradiation. Experimental Neurology, 1980, 70, 24–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Howarth, B., Jr. Embryonic survival in adrenalectomized rabbits following exposure to elevated ambient temperature and constant humidity. Journal of Animal Science, 1969, 28, 80–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hsu, C. Y. Influence of temperature in development of rat embryos. Anatomical Record, 1948, 100, 79–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Inouye, M., & Kameyama, Y. Cell death in the developing rat cerebellum following x-irradiation of 3 to 100 rad: A quantitative study. Journal of Radiation Research, 1983, 24, 259–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jensh, R. P. Behavioral testing procedures: a review. In E. M. Johnson & D. M. Kochhar (Eds.), Handbook of experimental pharmacology, Vol. 65. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1983. (a)Google Scholar
  38. Jensh, R. P. Reproductive toxicology: Radiation effects. In M. S. Christian, W. M. Galbraith, P. Voytek, & M. A. Mehlman (Eds.), Advances in modern environmental toxicology. Vol. 3: Assessment of reproductive and teratogenic hazards. Princeton: Princeton Scientific Publishers, 1983. (b)Google Scholar
  39. Jensh, R. P. Studies of the teratogenic potential of exposure of rats to 6000 MHz microwave radiation: II. Postnatal psychophysiologic evaluations. Radiation Research, 1984, 97, 282–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jensh, R. P., & Brent, R. L. Postnatal psychophysiological effects of prenatal exposure of rats to 60 Rad (0.6 Gy) x-irradiation. Teratology, 1984, 29 (2), 37A.Google Scholar
  41. Jensh, R. P., & Brent, R. L. Postnatal psychophysiological effects of prenatal exposure of rats to 60 Rad (0.6 Gy) x-irradiation. Teratology, 1984, 29 (2), 37A.Google Scholar
  42. Jensh, R. P., & Brent, R. L. Postnatal psychophysiological effects of prenatal exposure of rats to 60 Rad (0.6 Gy) x-irradiation. Teratology, 1984, 29 (2), 37A.Google Scholar
  43. Jensh, R. P., Brent, R. L., & Bolden, B. T. The effect of prenatal x-irradiation on the length of postnatal life in mice. Teratology, 1969, 2, 262.Google Scholar
  44. Jensh, R. P., Garaguso, J. E., & Brent, R. L. The effects of prenatal x-irradiation on the reproductive performance on the male wistar albino rat. Teratology, 1973, 7, 18A.Google Scholar
  45. Jensh, R. P., Pugarelli, J. E., MacBain, S., & Brent, R. L. The effects of prenatal x-irradiation on the reproductive performance of wistar albino rats. Teratology, 1976, 13, 26 A.Google Scholar
  46. Jensh, R. P., Ludlow, J., Weinberg, I., Vogel, W. H., Rudder, T., & Brent, R. L. Studies concerning the effects of protracted prenatal exposure to a non-thermal level of 2450 MHz microwave radiation in the pregnant rat. Teratology, 1978, 17(2), 48A. (a)Google Scholar
  47. Jensh, R. P., Ludlow, J., Weinberg, I., Vogel, W. H., Rudder, T., & Brent, R. L. Studies concerning the postnatal effects of protracted low dose prenatal 915 MHz microwave irradiation. Teratology, 1978, 77(2), 21A. (b)Google Scholar
  48. Jensh, R. P., Ludlow, J., Vogel, W. H., McHugh, T., Weinberg, I., & Brent, R. L. Studies concerning the effects of non-thermal protracted prenatal 915 MHz microwave radiation on prenatal and postnatal development in the rat. Digest of the XIV International Microwave Symposium, Monaco, 1979, 99–101.Google Scholar
  49. Jensh, R. P., Ludlow, J., & McHugh, T. Studies concerning the effects of protracted prenatal 6 GHz microwave irradiation on pre- and postnatal development in the rat. Teratology, 1980, 21 (2), 46A.Google Scholar
  50. Jensh, R. P., Vogel, W. H., & Brent, R. L. Postnatal functional analyses of prenatal exposure of rats to 915 MHz microwave radiation. Journal of the American College of Toxicology, 1982, 7 (3), 73–89.Google Scholar
  51. Jensh, R. P., Vogel, W. H., & Brent, R. L. An evaluation of the teratogenic potential of protracted exposure of pregnant rats to 2450 MHz microwave radiation. II. Postnatal psychophysiologic analysis. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 1983, 77, 37–59.Google Scholar
  52. Jensh, R. P., Vogel, W. H., & Brent, R. L. An evaluation of the teratogenic potential of protracted exposure of pregnant rats to 2450 MHz microwave radiation. II. Postnatal psychophysiologic analysis. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 1983, 77, 37–59.Google Scholar
  53. Jensh, R. P., Vogel, W. H., & Brent, R. L. An evaluation of the teratogenic potential of protracted exposure of pregnant rats to 2450 MHz microwave radiation. II. Postnatal psychophysiologic analysis. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 1983, 77, 37–59.Google Scholar
  54. Job, T. T., Leibold, G. J., & Fitzmaurice, H. A. Biological effects of roentgen rays: The determination of critical periods in mammalian development with x-rays. American Journal of Anatomy, 1935, 56, 97–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Johnson, R. B., Mizumori, S., & Lovely, R. H. Adult behavioral deficit in rats exposed prenatally to 918-MHz microwaves. In Developmental toxicology of energy related pollutants, Department of Energy Symposium, 1977, Series 47.Google Scholar
  56. Kameyama, Y. Low-dose radiation as an environmental agent affecting intrauterine development. Environmental Medicine, 1982, 26, 1–15.Google Scholar
  57. Kaplan, J., Poison, P., Rebert, C., Lynn, K., & Gage, M. Biological and behavioral effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to 2450 MHz electromagnetic radiation on the squirrel monkey. Radio Science, 1982, 77 (55), 1355–1445.Google Scholar
  58. Kaplan, S. J. Learning behavior of rats given low-dose x-irradiation in utero on various gestation days. In T. J. Harley & R. S. Snider (Eds.), Response of the nervous system to ionizing radiation. New York: Academic Press, 1962.Google Scholar
  59. Kimmeldorf, D. J., & Hunt, E. L. Ionizing radiation: Neural function and behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  60. Kiyono, S., Seo, M., & Shibagaki, M. Effects of environmental enrichment upon maze performance in rats with microcephaly induced by prenatal x-irradiation. Japanese Journal of Physiology, 1981, 31, 769–773.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lipton, J. M. Locomotor behavior and neuromorphological anomalies in prenatally and postnatally irradiated rats. Radiation Research, 1966, 28, 822–829.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Michailova, N. G. Dependence between the dose value of antenatal irradiation and the state of higher nervous activity. Medical Radiology, 1960, 5 (8), 22–26.Google Scholar
  63. Mosier, H. D., & Jansons, R. A. Stunted growth in rats following x-irradiation of the head. Growth, 1967, 31, 139–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Mullenix, P., & Norton, S. Hippocampal damage and behavior in old rats after exposure to x-irradiation in utero. Pharmacologist, 1974, 16, 252.Google Scholar
  65. Mullenix, P., Norton, S., & Culver, B. Locomotor damage in rats after x-irradiation in utero. Experimental Neurology, 1975, 48, 310–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Murai, N., Hoshi, K., & Suzuki, M. Effects of prenatal exposure to diagnostic ultrasound on the behavioral development of rats. Teratology, 1974 10 (1), 91.Google Scholar
  67. Norton, S. Development of rat telencephalic neurons after prenatal x-irradiation. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, 1979, C13 (2), 121–134.Google Scholar
  68. Ordy, J. M., Brizzee, K. R., Dunlap, W. P., & Knight, C. Effects of prenatal Co irradiation on postnatal neurology, learning, and hormonal development of the squirrel monkey. Radiation Research, 1982, 89, 309–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Piontkovskii, I. A.,& Kolomeitseva, I. A. On certain characteristics of higher nervous activity in adult animals after prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation: II. State of higher nervous activity in adult rats after roentgen ray-irradiation during the 18th day of prenatal development. Biulleten Eksperimentalnoi Biologii i Medit- siny (Moskva), 1959, 48 (12), 25–30.Google Scholar
  70. Piontkovskii, I. A., & Kruglikov, R. I. Effect of x-ray irradiation of pregnant females on the functional state of higher divisions of the central nervous system of their progeny. Doklady Akademii nauk SSSR (Moskva) 1960, 130, 898–900.Google Scholar
  71. Rugh, R., & Wohlfromm, M. Prenatal x-irradiation and postnatal mortality. Radiation Research, 1965, 26, 493–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rugh, R., Duhamel, L., Chandler, A., & Varma, A. Cataract development after embryonic and fetal x- irradiation. Radiation Research, 1964, 22, 519–534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rugh, R., Duhamel, L., Osborne, A. W., & Varma, A. Persistent stunting following x-irradiation of the fetus. American Journal of Anatomy, 1964, 775, 185–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rugh, R., Duhamel, L., & Skaredoff, L. Relation of embryonic and fetal x-irradiation of lifetime average weights and tumor incidence in mice. Proceedings of the Society for Biology and Medicine, 1966, 121, 714–718.Google Scholar
  75. Schmahl, W., Weber, L., & Kriegel, H. Sexual dimorphism of mouse fetal brain lesions after x-irradiation prior to gonadal differentiation. Experientia, 1979, 35, 1653–1655.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Semagin, V.N. The state of the higher nervous activity in rats subjected to daily x-ray irradiation at the stage of embryonic development. Medical Radiology, 1959, 4 (6), 16–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Seo, M. L., Inouye, M., Kiyono, S., & Shibagaki, M. Effects of environmentally differential rearing upon maze performance in prenatally irradiated microcephalic rats. Teratology, 1982, 26, 221–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sharp, J. C. Effects of fetal x-irradiation on maze learning ability and motor coordination in albino rats. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology, 1961, 54, 127–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sharp, J. C. The effects of prenatal x-irradiation on acquisition, retention, and extinction of a conditioned emotional response. Radiation Research, 1965, 24, 154–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sherrod, K. B., Meier, G. W., & Connor, W. H. Open-field behavior of prenatally irradiated and/or postnatally handled C57BL/6 mice. Developmental Psychobiology, 1977, 10 (3), 195–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Shibagaki, M., Seo, M., Asano, T., & Kiyono, S. Environmental enrichment to alleviate maze performance deficits in rats with microcephaly induced by x-irradiation. Physiology and Behavior, 1981, 27, 797–802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sikov, M. R., Resta, C. F., Loftrom, J. E., & Meyer, J. S. Neurological deficits in the rat resulting from x- irradiation in utero. Experimental Neurology, 1962, 5, 131–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sikov, M. R., Hildebrand, B. P., & Stearns, J. D. Postnatal sequelae of ultrasound exposure at fifteen days of gestation in the rat (work in progress). Ultrasound in Medicine, 1977, 3B, 2017–2023.Google Scholar
  84. Skreb, N., Bijelic, N., & Lukovic, G. Weight of rat embryos after x-ray irradiation. Experientia, 1963, 79, 1– 4.Google Scholar
  85. Smialowicz, R. J., Kinn, J. B., & Elder, J. A. Perinatal exposure of rats to 2450-MHz cw microwave radiation: effects on lymphocytes. Radio Science, 1979, 14, 147–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tamaki, Y., & Inouye, M. Brightness discrimination learning in a skinner box in prenatally x-irradiated rats. Physiology and Behavior, 1976, 16, 343–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tamaki, Y., & Inouye, M. Avoidance learning under delayed shock termination in prenatally x-irradiated rats. Developmental Psychobiology, 1979, 14(2), 95–99. (a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tamaki, Y., & Inouye, M. Avoidance of and anticipatory responses to shock in prenatally x-irradiated rats. Physiology and Behavior, 1979, 22, 701–705. (b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Tamaki, Y., Shoji, R., Takeuchi, I. K., & Murakami, U. Facilitatory effect of prenatal x-irradiation on two-way avoidance behavior in rats. Japanese Psychological Research, 1976, 18 (3), 142–146.Google Scholar
  90. Walker, S., & Furchtgott, E. Effects of prenatal x-irradiation on the acquisition, extinction, and discrimination of classically conditioned response. Radiation Research, 1970, 42, 120–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wechkin, S., Elder, R. F., & Furchtgott, E. Motor performance in the rat as a function of age and prenatal x- irradiation. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology, 1961, 54, 658–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Werboff, J., Goodman, I., Havlena, J., & Sikov, M. Effects of prenatal x-irradiation on motor performance in the rat. American Journal of Physiology, 1961, 201, 703–706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Werboff, J., Havlena, J., & Sikov, M. R. Effects of prenatal x-irradiation on activity, emotionality, and maze learning ability in the rat. Radiation Research, 1962, 16, 441–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Werboff, J., Havlena, J., & Sikov, M. R. Behavioral effects of small doses of acute x-irradiation administered prenatally. Atompraxis, 1963, 9, 103–105.Google Scholar
  95. Yamazaki, J. N. A review of the literature on the radiation dosage required to cause manifest central nervous system disturbances from in utero and postnatal exposure. Pediatrics, 1966, 37, 877–903.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronald Paul Jensh
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Anatomy and Radiology, Jefferson Medical CollegeThomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations