Phase Transitions in Nonequilibrium Systems: Dye Lasers and Lasers with Saturable Absorbers

  • J. F. Scott
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 135)

Abstract

Since the pioneering work of Graham and Haken, and of Lamb, Scully and DeGiorgio developing the analogy between lasers near threshold and second-order transitions in systems at thermal equilibrium, nearly a hundred papers have been published which use or expand upon this idea. In 1975, Sargent, Cantrell, and the present author extended this approach to show that lasers with saturable absorbers behaved as mathematical analogs to equilibrium systems with first- order phase transitions, complete with latent heats (or their analogs) and bistability. The latter aspect — bistability — is of course now an important specialty in optics in its own right and has provided renewed attention to these rather simple theories. In the present paper we review the work along these lines since 1975 and suggest some possible new extensions, in particular, to analogs of the Pippard relationship for phase transitions in equilibrium systems.

Keywords

Recombination Helium Coherence Boulder 111C 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    R. Graham and H. Haken, Z. Phys. 213:420 (1968); Z. Phys. 237:31 (1970); H. Haken, Rev. Mod. Phys. 47: 67 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. 0. Scully and W. E. Lamb, Jr., Phys. Rev. 159:208 (1967); V. DeGiorgio and M. 0. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 2:1170 (1970); J. C. Goldstein, M. 0. Scully and P. A. Lee, Phys. Lett. 35A:317 (1971); M. 0. Scully, Proc. 3rd Roch. Conf. on Coherence and Quantum Optics, Rochester, New York, May 1972, edited by L. Mandel and E. Wolf ( New York: Plenum Publishing Co., 1973 ).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. F. Scott, M. Sargent III and C. D. Cantrell, Optics Commun. 15: 13 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. F. Scott, Optics Commun. 15: 343 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    V. P. Chebotayev, I. M. Beretov, and V. N. Lisitsyn, IEEE J. Quant. Elec. QE4:788 (1968). Perhaps the best experimental example is the CO2/SF6 data of S. Ruschin and S. H. Bauer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 66: 100 (1979).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. B. Schaefer and C. R. Willis, Phys. Lett. 58A:53 (1976); Phys. Rev. A 13: 1874 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. T. Dembinski and A. Kossakowski, Z. Phys. B24:141 (1976); A. Baczynski, A. Kossakowski, and T. Marszalek, Z. Phys. B23:205 (1976); S. T. Dembinski and A. Kossakowski, Z. Phys. B25:207 (1976); S. T. Dembinski, A. Kossakowski and L. Woliewicz, Z. Phys. 27: 281 (1977).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. Marowsky and W. Heudorfer, Optics Commun. 26:381 (1978); Applied Physics 17: 181 (1978).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. C. Antoranz, J. Gea, and M. G. Verlarde, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47:1895 (1981); F. Casagrande and L. A. Lugiato, Nuovo Cim. 2D:287 (1978); M. L. Asquini and F. Casagrande, Nuovo Cim. 2D: 917 (1983).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. T. Mahanthappa and M. A. Sher, Phys. Rev. D22-. 1711 (1980).ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. B. Pippard, Phil. Mag. 1:473 (1956); M. J. Buckingham and W, M. Fairbank, Progr. Low Temp. Phys. 3: 80 (1961).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. W. Garland, J. Chem. Phys. 41: 1005 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    V. Janovec, J. Chem. Phys. 45: 1874 (1966).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. D. Landau, Phys. Z. Sowjetunion 11: 26 (1937).MATHGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. Salomaa and S. Stenholm, Phys. Rev. A8:2695 (1973); R. Salomaa, J. Phys. A7: 1094 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. P, Kazantsev, S. G. Rautian, and G. I. Surdutovich, Sov. Phys. JETP 27:756 (1968); Sov. Phys. JETP 29:1075 (1969); Sov. Phys. JETP 31: 133 (1970).ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    H. Haken and H. Ohno, Optics Commun. 26:117 (1978); Optics Commun 16: 205 (1976).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. Roy, Phys. Rev. A20: 2093 (1979).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    P. Mandel, Z. Phys. B33:205 (1979); Phys. Lett. A83: 207 (1981).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    H. Inaba, Phys. Lett. 86A: 452 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. G. Velarde and J. C. Antoranz, J. Stat. Phys. 24:235 (1981); Phys. Lett. 72A: 123 (1979).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. Dekker, Physica 900: 283 (1977).MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    T. Munakata, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 45: 749 (1978).MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    B. S. Shastry, G. S. Agarwal, and I. R. Rao, Pramana 11: 85 (1978).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    T. S. Dlodlo, Physica 1110: 353 (1981).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Schenzle and H. Brand, Optics Commun. 31: 401 (1979).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. Jacques and P. Glorieux, Optics Commun. 40:455 (1982); K. Tomita, T. Todani, and H. Kidachi, Physica 84A:350 (1976); Phys. Lett. 51A: 483 (1975).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. R. Bulsara and W. C. Schieve, Optics Commun. 26:384 (1978); G. Haag, M. Munz and G. Marowsky, IEEE J. Quant. Elec. JQE17: 349 (1981).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    L. A. Lugiato, P. Mandel, S. T. Dembinski, and A. Kossakowski, Phys. Rev. A18:238 (1978); C. Harder, IEEE J. Quant. Elec. JQE18: 1351 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    R. Bonifacio, M. Gronchi, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. A18, 2266 (1978); Phys. Rev. A18: 1129 (1978).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    R. Graham and A. Schenzle, Phys. Rev. A23:1302 (1981); S. S. Hassan, P. D. Drummond and D. F. Walls, Optics Commun. 27:480 (1978); S. A. Collins, Opt. Eng. 19: 478 (1980).MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    M. Milani, R. Bonifacio, and M. Scully, Nuovo Cim. Lett. 26: 353 (1979).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    S. R. Shenoy and G. S. Agarwal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44: 1524 (1980).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    A. Nitzan and J. Ross, J. Chem. Phys. 59:241 (1973); G. Nicolis and I. Prigogine, “Self Organization in Non- Equilibrium Systems” ( New York: Wiley, 1977 ).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. Agu and Y. Teramachi, J. Appl. Phys. 49: 3645 (1978).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    R. E. Heist and H. Reiss, J. Chem. Phys. 59: 665 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    W. W. Chow, M. O. Scully and E. W. van Stryland, Optics Commun. 15: 6 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    L. A. Lugiato, Lett. Nuovo Cim. 23:609 (1978). Also see C. R. Willis, Optics Commun. 23:151 (1977) and R. Bonifacio and L. A. Lugiato, Lett. Nuovo Cim. 21: 510 (1978).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. F. Scott
    • 1
  1. 1.Condensed Matter Laboratory Department of PhysicsUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA

Personalised recommendations