Reorganization of Axonal Cytoskeleton Following β, β′-Iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) Intoxication
β,β ′-Iminodipropionitri1e (IDPN), NH=(CH2CH2CN)2, is a synthetic compound closely related to the osteolathyrogen B-aminopropionitrile (NH2CH2CH2CN). Intoxication of various experimental animals with IDPN produces the excitement, circling and choreathetosis (ECC) or waltzing syndrome (Selye, 1957), a permanent symptom complex indicating irreparable damage to the central nervous system (CNS). Early histopathological studies have described large, amorphous bodies in the anterior horn cells of spinal cord and in other large neurons throughout the nervous system. These amorphous bodies were originally misinterpreted as degenerated neuronal perikarya and were called “ghost cells” (Bachhuber et al., 1955; Ule, 1962). It was shown subsequently by Chou and Hartman (1964; 1965) that the “ghost cells” were actually huge balloons and swollen axons connected to the cell body by an apparently normal initial segment (Fig. 1). They suggested that “axostasis,” caused by a “plug” of particulate organelles in the proximal axon, produced the axonal swellings.
KeywordsSciatic Nerve Axonal Transport Lumbar Spinal Cord Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Ventral Root
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Anthony, C. D., Giangaspero, F. and Graham, D. G., 1983, The spatiotemporal pattern of the axonopathy associated with the neurotoxicity of 3, 4-dimethyl-2,5-hexamedinoe in the rat, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 42: 548–560.Google Scholar
- Chou, S. M. and Hartmann, H. A., 1964, Axonal lesions and waltzing syndrome after IDPN administration in rats, Acta Neuropathol. 3: 428–450.Google Scholar
- Chou, S. M. and Hartmann, H. A., 1965, Electron microscopy of focal neuroaxonal lesions produced by β,β’-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) in rat, Acta Neuropathol. 4: 590–603.Google Scholar
- Chou, S. M. and Klein, R. A., 1972, Autoradiographic studies of protein turnover in motor neurons of IDPN-treated rats, Acta Neuropathol. 22: 183–189.Google Scholar
- Gambetti, P., Autilio-Gambetti, L. and Papasozomenos, S. Ch., 1981, Bodian’s silver method stains neurofilament polypeptides, Science 213: 1521–1522.Google Scholar
- Griffin, J. W., Hoffman, P. N., Clark, A. W., Carroll, P. T. and Price, D. L., 1978, Slow axonal transport of neurofilament proteins: Impairment by β,β’-iminodipropionitrile administration, Science 202: 633–635.Google Scholar
- Lopachin, R. M., Moore, R. M., Menahon, L. A. and Peterson, R. E., 1983, Glucose-dependent lactate production by homogenates of neuronal tissues prepared from rats treated with 2,4-dithiobiuret, acrylamide, p-bromophenylacetyl urea and 2,5-hexanedione, Second International Conference on Neurotoxiclogy of Selected Chemicals, Chicago, p. 8.Google Scholar
- Papasozomenos, S. Ch., Autilio-Gambetti, L. and Gambetti, P., 1982, The IDPN axon: Rearrangement of axonal cytoskeleton and organelles following β, β’-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) intoxication, uk “Axoplasmic Transport,” D.G. Weiss, ed., Springer-Verlag, pp. 241–250, New York.Google Scholar
- Papasozomenos, S. Ch., Binder, L. I., Bender, P.K. and Payne, M.R., 1985, Microtubule-associated protein 2 within axons of spinal motor neurons: Associations with microtubules and neurofilaments in normal and β,β’-iminodiproprionitrile-treated axons, J. Cell Biol., 100: 74-85.Google Scholar
- Selye, H., 1957, Lathyrism, Rev. Canad. Biol., 16:1–8?;Google Scholar
- Vallee, R. B., 1984, Map2 (Microtubule-associated protein 2), in: “Cell and Muscle Motility, Vol. 5,” J. W. Shay, ed., pp. 289–311, PTenum, New York.Google Scholar
- Yokoyama, K., Tsukita, S., Ishikawa, H. and Kurokawa, M., 1980, Early changes in the neuronal cytoskeleton caused by β,β’-iminodipropionitrile: Selective impairment of neurofilament polypeptides, Biomed. Res., 1: 537-547.Google Scholar