Dietary Fiber pp 323-333 | Cite as

Dietary Fiber, Sucrose, and Serum Lipids

  • Margaret J. Albrink
  • Irma H. Ullrich

Abstract

The best known effects of diet on serum cholesterol were elaborated during a series of experiments on adult men carried out by Keys and others during the 1960s (Keys et al., 1965; Anderson et al., 1973). The conclusions reached from these experiments were that saturated fat was the most powerful cholesterol-raising dietary component, dietary cholesterol having a small additional effect, and polyunsaturated fat having a cholesterol-lowering effect about half as effective as the cholesterol-raising effect of saturated fat. Pectin, certain vegetables, and plant sterols were also found to have a cholesterol-lowering effect. Most of these studies were carried out using diets of usual Western composition, i.e., moderately high in saturated fat and cholesterol. The amount and type of carbohydrate was found to have little or no effect. When an effect was found, sucrose and other sugars had a cholesterol-raising effect compared to starch. By and large, the type of carbohydrate was thought to be of little significance compared to the large effect of type of fat (McGandy et al., 1967). So strong is this impression that in many studies the type of carbohydrate is not even stated.

Keywords

Cholesterol Sugar Sucrose Starch Corn 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aherns, E. H., Jr., Hirsch, J., Oette, K., Farquhar, J. W., and Stein, Y., 1961, Carbohydrate-induced and fat-induced lipemia, Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians 74: 124–146.Google Scholar
  2. Albrink, M. J., and Ullrich, I. H., 1985, Interactions of dietary fiber and sucrose on serumm lipids, cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol in healthy young men fed high carbohydrate diets, (submitted for publication).Google Scholar
  3. Albrink, M. J., Newman, T. and Davidson, P. C., 1979, Effect of high- and low-fiber diets on plasma lipids and insulin, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32: 1486–1491.Google Scholar
  4. Albrink, M. J., Harper, L., and Davidson, P. C., 1985a, Curtailment of carbohydrate-induced lipemia by impaired glucose tolerance, (submitted for publication).Google Scholar
  5. Albrink, M. J., Ullrich, I. H., Beamer, K., Reid, R., and Watne, R., 1985b, Response of fecal fiber and steroid to high fiber high sucrose diets, (submitted for publication).Google Scholar
  6. Anderson, J. T., Grande, F., Matsumoto, V., and Keys, A., 1963, Glucose, sucrose and lactose in the diet and blood lipids in man, J. Nutr. 79: 349–359.Google Scholar
  7. Anderson, J. T., Grande, F., and Keys, A., 1973, Cholesterol-lowering diets. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 62: 133–142.Google Scholar
  8. Antar, M. A., and Ohlson, M. A., 1965, Effect of simple and complex carbohydrates upon total lipids, non-phospholipids, and different fractions of phospholipids of serum in young men and women, J. Nutr. 75: 329–337.Google Scholar
  9. Antar, M. A., Little, J. A., Lucas, C., Buckley, G. C., and Csima, A., 1970, Interrelationship between the kinds of dietary carbohydrate and fat in hyperlipoproteinemic patients. Part 3. Synergistic effect of sucrose and animal fat on serum lipids, Atherosclerosis 11: 191–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Behall, K. M., Lee, K. H., and Moser, P. B., 1984, Blood lipids and lipoproteins in adult men fed four refined fibers, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 39: 209–214.Google Scholar
  11. Beveridge, J. M. R., Jagannathan, S. N., and Connell, W. F., 1964, The effect of the type and amount of dietary fat on the level of plasma triglycerides in human subjects in the post- absorptive state, Can. J. Biochem. 42: 999–1003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Connor, W. E., and Connor, S. L., 1982, The dietary treatment of hyperlipidemia. Rationale, technique and efficacy, Med. Clin. North Am. 66: 485–518.Google Scholar
  13. Dunnigan, M. G., Fyfe, T., McKiddle, M. T., and Crosbie, C. M., 1970, The effects of isocaloric exchange of dietary starch and sucrose on glucose tolerance, plasma insulin and serum lipids in man, Clin. Sci. 38: 1–9.Google Scholar
  14. Goldstein, J. L., Kita, T., and Brown, M. S., 1983, Defective lipoprotein receptors and atherosclerosis. Lessons from an animal counterpart of familial hypercholesterolemia, N. Engl. J. Med. 309: 288–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Grande, F., Anderson, J. T., and Keys, A., 1965, Effect of carbohydrates of leguminous seeds, wheat and potatoes on serum cholesterol concentration in man, J. Nutr. 86: 313–317.Google Scholar
  16. Grande, F., Anderson, J. T., and Keys, A., 1974, Sucrose and various carbohydrate-containing foods and serum lipids in man, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 27: 1043–1051.Google Scholar
  17. Groen, J. J., Balogh, M., Yaron, E., and Cohen, A. M., 1966, Effect of interchanging bread and sucrose as main source of carbohydrate in a low fat diet on the serum cholesterol levels of healthy volunteer subjects, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 19: 46–58.Google Scholar
  18. Hallfrisch, J., Reiser, S., and Prather, E. S., 1983, Blood lipid distribution of hyperinsulinemic men consuming three leves of fructose, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 37: 740–748.Google Scholar
  19. Hayford, J. T., Danney, M. M., Wiebe, D., Roberts, S., and Thompson, R. G., 1979, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32: 1670–1678.Google Scholar
  20. Holt, P. R., Dominquez, A. A., and Kwartler, J., 1979, Effect of sucrose feeding upon intestinal and hepatic lipid synthesis, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32: 1792–1798.Google Scholar
  21. Jackson, R. L., Kashyap, M. L., Barnhard, R. L., Alien, C., Hogg, E., and Glueck, C. J., 1984, Influence of polyunsaturated and saturated fats on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in man, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 39: 589–597.Google Scholar
  22. Jenkins, D. J. A., Reynolds, D., Slavin, B., Leeds, A. R., Jenkins, A. L., and Jepson, E. W., 1980, Dietary fiber and blood lipids: Treatment of hypercholesterolemia with guar crisp- bread, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 33: 575–581.Google Scholar
  23. Jenkins, D. J. A., Wong, G. S., Patten, R., Bird, J., Hall, M., Buckley, G. C., McGuire, V., Reichert, R., and Little, J. A., 1983, Leguminous seeds in the dietary management of hypercholesterolemia, J. Am. Clin. Nutr. 38: 567–573.Google Scholar
  24. Kaufman, N. A., Poznanski, R., Blondheim, S. H., and Stein, V., 1966, Changes in serum lipid levels of hyperlipemic patients following the feeding of starch, sucrose and glucose, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 18: 261–269.Google Scholar
  25. Kay, R. M., 1982, Dietary fiber, J. Lipid Res. 23: 221–242.Google Scholar
  26. Kelsay, J. L., 1978, A review of research on effects of fiber intake in man, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 31: 142–159.Google Scholar
  27. Keys, A., Anderson, J. T., and Grande, F., 1965, Serum cholesterol response to changes in the diet. II. Effect of cholesterol in the diet, Metabolism 14: 759–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Keys, A., Anderson, J. T., and Grande, F., 1966, Diet-type (fats constant) and blood lipids in man, J. Nutr. 70: 257–266.Google Scholar
  29. Kirby, R. W., Anderson, J. W., Sieling, B., Rees, E. D., Chen, W.-J. L., Miller, R. E., and Kay, R. M., 1981, Oat-bran intake selectively lowers serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations of hypercholeterolemic men, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34: 824–829.Google Scholar
  30. Kritchevsky, D., 1978, Effect of dietary fiber on lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis, in: International Conference on Atherosclerosis ( L. A. Carlson, ed.), Raven, New York, 1978, pp. 160–172.Google Scholar
  31. Liu, G. C., Coulston, A. M., and Reaven, G. M., 1983. Effect of high-carbohydrate low-zat diets on plasma glucose, insulin and lipid responses in hypertriglyceridemic humans, Metabolism 32: 750–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mabuchi, H., Sakai, T,, Sakai, Y., Yoshimura, A., Watanabe, A., Wakasugi, T., Koizumi, J., Takeda, R., 1983, Reduction of serum cholesterol in heterozygous patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. Additive effects of compactin and cholestyramine, N. Engl. J. Med. 308: 609–613.Google Scholar
  33. MacDonald, I., 1966, Influence of fructose and glucose on serum lipid levels in men and pre and postmenopausal women, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 18: 369–372.Google Scholar
  34. MacDonald, I., and Braethwaite, D. M., 1964, The influence of dietary carbohydrates on the lipid pattern in serum and in adipose tissue, Clin. Sci. 27: 23–30.Google Scholar
  35. MacDonald, I., and Roberts, J. B., 1965, The incorporation of various C14 dietary carbohydrates into serum and liver lipids, Metabolism 14: 991–999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mahalko, J. R., Sandstead, H. H., Johnson, L. K., Inrnan, L. F., Milne, D. B., Warner, R. C., and Haunz, E. A., 1984, Effect of consuming fiber from corn bran, soy hulls, or apple powder on glucose tolerance and plasma lipids in type II diabetes, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 39: 25–34.Google Scholar
  37. Maranhão, R. C., and Quintao, E. C. R., 1983, Long term steroid metabolism balance studies in subjects on cholesterol-free and cholesterol-rich diets: Comparison between normal and hypercholesterolemic individuals, J. Lipid Res. 24: 167–173.Google Scholar
  38. McGandy, R. B., Hegsted, D. M., Myers, M. L., and Stare, F. J., 1966, Dietary carbohydrate and serum cholesterol levels in man, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 18:237–242,Google Scholar
  39. McGandy, R. B., Hegsted, D. M., and Stare, F. J., 1967, Dietary fats, carbohydrates and atherosclerotic vascular disease, N. Engl. J. Med. 277: 186–192, 242–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Portman, O. W., 1962, Importance of diet, species, and intestinal flora in bile acid metabolism, Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soe. Exp. Biol. 21: 896–902.Google Scholar
  41. Reiser, S., Hallfrisch, J., Michaelis, O. E., IV, Lazar, F. L., Martin, R. E., and Prather, E. S., 1979, Isocaloric exchange of dietary starch and sucrose in humans. I. Effect on levels of fasting blood lipids, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32: 1659–1668.Google Scholar
  42. Richardson, D. P., Scrimshaw, N. S., and Young, V. R., 1980, The effect of dietary sucrose on protein utilization in healthy young men, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 33: 264–272.Google Scholar
  43. Schreibman, P. H., and Ahrens, E. J., Jr., 1976, Sterol balance in hyperlipidemic patients after dietary exchange of carbohydrate for fat, J. Lipid Res. 17: 97–106.Google Scholar
  44. Shepherd, J., Packard, C. J., Bicker, S, Lawrie, T. D; V., and Morgan, H. G., 1980, Cholestyramine promotes receptor-mediated low-density-lipoprotein catabolism, N. Engl. J. Med. 302: 1219–1222.Google Scholar
  45. Trowell, H., 1972, Ischemic heart disease and dietary fiber, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 25: 926–932.Google Scholar
  46. Tsai, A. C., Mott, E. L., Owen, G. M., Bennick, M. R., Lo, G. S., and Steinke, F. H., 1983, Effects of soy polysaccharide on gastrointestinal functions, nutrient balance, steroid excretions, glucose tolerance, serum lipids, and other parameters in humans, Am. J. Clin, Nutr. 38: 504–511.Google Scholar
  47. Ullrich, I. H., and Albrink, M. J., 1980, Dietary fiber protects against sucrose-induced- hypertriglyceridemia, Clin. Res. 28: 816A.Google Scholar
  48. Ullrich, I. H., and Albrink, M. J., 1982, Lack of effect of dietary fiber on serum lipids, glucose tolerance and insulin in healthy young men fed high starch diets, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 36: 1–9.Google Scholar
  49. Ullrich, I. H., Lai, H.-Y., Vona, L., Reid, R. L., and Albrink, M. J., 1981, Alterations of fecal steroid composition induced by changes in dietary fiber consumption, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34: 2054–2060.Google Scholar
  50. Van Soest, P. J., and Robertson, J. B., 1976, Chemical and physical properties of dietary fiber, presented at Miles Symposium on Dietary Fiber, Nutrition Society of Canada, Rexdale, Ontario.Google Scholar
  51. Winitz, M., 1964, Effect of dietary carbohydrate on serum cholesterol levels, Arch. Biochem. 108: 576–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Zavoral, J. R, Hannan, P., Stat, M., Fields, D. J., Hanson, M. N., Frantz, I. D., Kuba, K., Elmer, PI, and Jacobs, D. R., 1983, The hypolipidemic effect of locust bean gum food products in familial hypercholesterolemic adults and children, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 38: 285–294.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margaret J. Albrink
    • 1
  • Irma H. Ullrich
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineWest Virginia University School of MedicineMorgantownUSA

Personalised recommendations