Advertisement

The Political and Institutional Setting for Risk Analysis

  • Michael E. Kraft
Part of the Contemporary Issues in Risk Analysis book series (CIRA, volume 1)

Abstract

Public concern for a wide array of risks to health, safety, and environmental quality has increased significantly in the last 15 years as have governmental efforts to deal with those risks. More recently, scientific analysis of such technological risks, from nuclear power plant operation to toxic and hazardous materials in the environment, has become a growth industry, the result of which is a substantial literature on risk analysis. Most of this literature, however, focuses on technical and methodological issues of risk assessment; there has been a comparative neglect of processes of risk evaluation and more generally political variables affecting implementation of risk reduction policies. If methods of risk assessment are to be employed more effectively in governmental settings and if they are to help bring greater rationality to policy decisions, improved understanding of political as well as technical aspects of risk analysis is essential. In particular, greater knowledge of how political and institutional forces affect the conduct, use, and impact of risk analysis is necessary to speak confidently of effective strategies of change.

Keywords

Risk Analysis Risk Evaluation Regulatory Reform Risk Policy Nuclear Regulatory Commission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aberbach, Joel D., 1980, “Changes in Congressional Oversight.” Making Bureaucracies Work. Edited by Carol H. Weiss and Allen H. Barton. Beverly Hills, California: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, James E., 1978. “Economic Regulatory and Consumer Protection Policies.” Nationalizing Government: Public Policies in American. Edited by T.J. Lowi and A. Stone. Beverly Hills, California: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, James, Alan R. Gitelson, and Mel Dubnick, eds., 1985. Public Policy and Economic Institutions. New York: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  4. Atkisson, Arthur A., Michael E. Kraft, and Lloyd L. Philipson, 1985. “Risk Analysis Methods and Their Employment in Governmental Risk Management.” Technical Report No. 83-1398-1, J.H. Wiggins Co., Redondo Beach, California, February.Google Scholar
  5. Baram, Michael S., “Cost-Benefit Analysis: An Inadequate Basis for Health, Safety, and Environmental Regulatory Decisionmaking.” Ecology Law Quarterly 8 (1980): 473–531.Google Scholar
  6. Baram, Michael S., 1982. Alternatives to Regulation: Managing Risks to Health, Safety, and the Environment. Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  7. Bardach, Eugene, and Robert A. Kagan, eds., 1982. Social Regulation. Rutgers, New Jersey: Transactions Books.Google Scholar
  8. Bardach, Eugene, and Robert A. Kagan, 1982. Going by the Book: The Problem of Regulatory Unreasonableness. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bartlett, Robert V., 1980. The Reserve Mining Controversy: Science, Technology, and Environmental Quality. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bogen, Kenneth T., “Public Policy and Technological Risk.” Idea: The Journal of Law and Technology 21 (1980): 37–74.Google Scholar
  11. Bogen, Kenneth T., 1981. “Coordination of Regulatory Risk Analysis: Current Framework and Legislative Proposals.” Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, June 19.Google Scholar
  12. Breyer, Stephen, 1982. Regulation and Its Reform. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  13. DeMuth, Christopher, 1982. “A Strong Beginning on Reform.” Regulation (January/February), pp. 15–18.Google Scholar
  14. Douglas, Mary, and Aaron Wildavsky, 1981. Risk and Culture: An Essay on the Selection of Technological and Environmental Dangers. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  15. Eads, George C., and Michael Fix, 1984. Relief or Reform? Reagan’s Regulatory Dilemma. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute Press.Google Scholar
  16. Edwards, George C., III, ed., 1985. Public Policy Formation and Implementation, Part II: Policy Implementation. New York: J AI Press.Google Scholar
  17. Eyestone, Robert, ed., 1985. Public Policy Formation and Implementation, Parti: Policy Formation. New York: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  18. Ferguson, Allen R., ed., 1981. Attacking Regulatory Problems: An Agenda for Research in the 1980s. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  19. Ferguson, Allen R., and E. Phillip LeVeen, 1981. The Benefits of Health and Safety Regulation. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  20. Field, Robert, 1981. “Statutory Language and Risk Management.” Prepared for the Committee on Risk and Decisionmaking of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  21. Fischhoff, Baruch, Sarah Lichtenstein, Paul Slovic, Steven L. Derby, and Ralph L. Keeney, 1981. Acceptable Risk. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Graymer, LeRoy, and Frederick Thompson, eds., 1982. Reforming Social Regulation: Alternative Public Policy Strategies. Beverly Hills, California: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  23. Hadden, Susan G., ed., “Symposium on Public Policy Toward Risk.” Policy Studies Review 1 (May 1982): 651–747.Google Scholar
  24. Hadden, Susan G., ed., 1984. Risk Analysis, Institutions, and Public Policy. Port Washington, New York: Associated Faculty Press.Google Scholar
  25. Hansen, Susan B., 1983. “Public Policy Analysis: Some Recent Developments and Current Problems.” Political Science: The State of the Discipline. Edited by Ada W. Finifter. Washington, D.C.: The American Political Science Association.Google Scholar
  26. Harris, Louis and Associates, 1980. “Risk in a Complex Society: A Marsh and McLennan Public Opinion Survey.” New York: Marsh and McLennan.Google Scholar
  27. Huntington, Samuel P., 1973. “Congressional Responses to the Twentieth Century.” The Congress and America’s Future, 2nd ed. Edited by David B. Truman. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  28. Interagency Regulatory Liaison Group, 1979. Scientific Basis for Identifying Potential Carcinogens and Estimating Their Risks. Washington, D.C.: Work Group on Risk Assessment, February.Google Scholar
  29. Kraft, Michael E., 1982a. “Risk Analysis in the Legislative Process: Congress and Risk Management Decisionmaking.” Technical Report No. 82-1398-2, J.H. Wiggins Company, Redondo Beach, California, April.Google Scholar
  30. Kraft, Michael E., 1982b. “The Use of Risk Analysis in Federal Regulatory Agencies: Problems and Prospects.” Technical Report No. 82-1398-3, J.H. Wiggins Company, Redondo Beach, California, June.Google Scholar
  31. Kraft, Michael E., and Norman J. Vig, 1984. “Environmental Policy in the Reagan Presidency.” Political Science Quarterly 99 (Fall): 415–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lave, Lester B., 1981. The Strategy of Social Regulation: Decision Frameworks for Policy. Washington, D.C.: Brookings.Google Scholar
  33. Lave, Lester B., 1983. Quantitative Risk Assessment in Regulation. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  34. Lester, James P., and Ann O’M. Bowman, eds., 1983. The Politics of Hazardous Waste Management. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Lester, James P., James L. Franke, and Ann O’M. Bowman, 1983. “A Comparative Perspective on State Hazardous Waste Regulation.” The Politics of Hazardous Waste Management. Edited by J.P. Lester and Ann O’M. Bowman. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Litan, Robert E., and William D. Nordhaus, 1983. Reforming Federal Regulation. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Lowrance, William, 1976. Of Acceptable Risk: Science and the Determination of Safety. Los Altos, California: William Kaufman.Google Scholar
  38. Mann, Dean E., ed., 1982. Environmental Policy Implementation. Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  39. Marcus, Alfred, 1981. “Measuring and Analyzing the Growth of Regulation.” Paper presented at the 1981 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association.Google Scholar
  40. Matheny, Albert R., and Bruce A. Williams, 1981. “Risk Assessment in the American States: Assessing the Assessors.” Paper presented at the 1981 Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Google Scholar
  41. Mazmanian, Daniel A., and Paul A. Sabatier, 1983. Implementation and Public Policy. Glenview, Illinois: Scott, Foresman.Google Scholar
  42. Mogee, Mary, 1985. “Risk Assessment in the Regulatory Process: Rule Making in EPA.” Public Policy and the Physical Environment. Edited by Helen Ingram and Kenneth Godwin. New York: J AI Press.Google Scholar
  43. Mosher, Lawrence, 1983. “‘Acceptable’ Risk—Can the Government Decide Whether to Be Safe or Sorry?” National Journal, December 3, pp. 2529–2532.Google Scholar
  44. Moss, Thomas H., 1980. “Environmental versus Emission Control Costs—A Legislative Perspective.” Atmospheric Sulfur Deposition: Environmental Impact and Health Effects. Edited by D.S. Shriner, C.R. Richmond, and S.E. Lindberg. Ann Arbor: Ann Arbor Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  45. Moss, Thomas and Barry Lubin, 1981. “Risk Analysis: A Legislative Perspective.” Health Risk Analysis: Proceedings of the Third Life Sciences Symposium. Edited by C.R. Richmond, P.J. Walsh, and E.D. Copenhauer. Philadelphia: The Franklin Institute Press.Google Scholar
  46. Nadel, Mark V., 1971. The Politics of Consumer Protection. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.Google Scholar
  47. Nagel, Stuart S., ed., 1983. Encyclopedia of Policy Studies. New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  48. Nathan, Richard P., 1983. The Administrative Presidency. New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  49. Nelkin, Dorothy. “Some Social and Political Dimensions of Nuclear Power: Examples from Three Mile Island.” American Political Science Review 75 (March 1981): 132–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nelkin, Dorothy, and Michael Pollack, 1980. “Problems and Procedures in the Regulation of Technological Risk.” Making Bureaucracies Work. Edited by Carol H. Weiss and Allen H. Barton. Beverly Hills, California: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  51. New York Times, 1983. “Ex-E.P.A. Aide Says Budget Office Put Case for Industry.” The New York Times, September 28, pp. 1, 11.Google Scholar
  52. Ogul, Morris S., 1976. Congress Oversees the Bureaucracy: Studies in Legislative Supervision. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
  53. Poole, Robert W., Jr., ed., 1981. Instead of Regulation: Alternatives to Federal Regulatory Agencies. Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  54. Reagan, Ronald. “Executive Order 12291.” Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents (February 17, 1981 ): 124.Google Scholar
  55. Rosenbaum, Walter A., 1977. The Politics of Environmental Concern, 2nd ed. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  56. Sabatier, Paul, “Regulatory Policy-Making: Toward a Framework of Analysis.” Natural Resources Journal 17 (July 1977): 415–460.Google Scholar
  57. Shabecoff, Philip, 1983. “E.P.A. Chief Urges Uniform Pollution Assessment.” The New York Times, June 23.Google Scholar
  58. Swartzman, Daniel, Richard A. Liroff, and Kevin G. Croke, eds., 1982. Cost-Benefit Analysis and Environmental Regulation: Politics, Ethics, and Methods. Washington, D.C.: Conservation Foundation.Google Scholar
  59. Thomas, Stephen, 1985. “Risk Assessment in Cancer Treatment.” Public Policy and the Physical Environment. Edited by Helen Ingram and Kenneth Godwin. New York: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  60. Tobin, Richard, 1979. The Social Gamble.Determining Acceptable Levels of Air Quality. Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  61. Tolchin, Martin, and Susan J. Tolchin, 1983. Dismantling America—The Rush to Deregulate. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  62. U.S. Congress, 1980a. Risk/Benefit Analysis in the Legislative Process. Summary of a Congress/Science Joint Forum, prepared by the Congressional Research Service for the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology of the Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, and the Subcommittee on Science, Technology and Space of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, 96th Congress, 2nd session. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  63. U.S. Congress, 1980b. Risk/Benefit Analysis in the Legislative Process. Joint hearings before the Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Technology of the Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, and the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space of the Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, United States Senate and Congress/Science Forum with the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 96th Congress, 1st session. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  64. U.S. Congress, 1980c. Comparative Risk Assessment. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology of the Committee on Science and Technology, 96th Congress, 1st session. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  65. Vig, Norman J., 1979. “Environmental Decisionmaking in the Lower Courts: The Reserve Mining Case.” Energy and Environmental Issues. Edited by Michael Steinman. Lexington Massachusetts: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  66. Vig, Norman J., “The Courts: Judicial Review and Risk Assessment.” Risk Analysis, Institutions, and Public Policy. Edited by Susan G. Hadden. Port Washington, New York: Associated Faculty Press.Google Scholar
  67. Vig, Norman J., and Patrick J. Bruer, “The Courts and Risk Assessment.” Policy Studies Review 1 (May 1982): 716–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Vig, Norman J., and Michael E. Kraft, eds., 1984. Environmental Policy in the 1980s: Reagan’s New Agenda. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Press.Google Scholar
  69. Welborn, David M., 1977. “Taking Stock of Regulatory Reform.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, September.Google Scholar
  70. Wilson, James Q., ed., 1980. The Politics of Regulation. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  71. Wilson, Richard, and Edmund Crouch, 1982. Risk/Benefit Analysis. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  72. Wines, Michael, 1982. “Reagan’s Reforms Are Full of Sound And Fury, But What Do They Signify.” National Journal, January 16, pp. 92–98Google Scholar
  73. Wines, Michael, 1983a. “Mission Accomplished, Bush Says of His Rules Task Force.” National Journal, August 20, p. 1749.Google Scholar
  74. Wines, Michael, 1983b. “Auchter’s Record at OSHA Leaves Labor Outraged, Business Satisfied.” National Journal, October 1, pp. 2008–2013.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael E. Kraft
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Public and Environmental AdministrationUniversity of WisconsinGreen BayUSA

Personalised recommendations