Medical Control of Employees in the Electrical Industry Exposed to Low Frequency Electric Fields

  • Jean Cabanes
Part of the Ettore Majorana International Science Series book series (PRIP)

Abstract

To ask if it is necessary to medically supervise employees in the electrical industry exposed to electric fields implies answering three questions :
  • First and foremost it is necessary for each country to specify the laws and habits which govern the medical supervision of workers in the electrical industry.

  • Then we must define the population exposed to fields and be as precise as possible about the physical value and the length of the exposure.

  • Finally we need to know if exposure to a field leads to clinical and biological changes and to try to understand how electromagnetic fields of low frequency act.

Once we have answered these three questions we go on to determine how to treat the subjects exposed to fields.

Keywords

Migration Europe Leukemia Rubber Ceria 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Asanova T.P. and Rakov A.I., 1966 - The state of health of persons working in the electric field of outdoor 400 and 500 kV. switchyards. (Gig. Trud. Prof. Zabol., 10, 5, 50–52 )Google Scholar
  2. Beischer D.E., Grisett J.D., Mitchell R.E., 1973 - Exposure of man to magnetic fields alternating at extremely low frequency. ( Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Pensacola Florida, 1180 )Google Scholar
  3. Blanchi D., Cedrini L., Ceria F., Meda E. and Re G.G., 1973 - Exposure of mammalians to strong 50 Hz electric fields. ( Arch. Fisiol., 70, 30–32 )Google Scholar
  4. Bourgsdorf V. 198O - How the advancement of knowledge has modified the technical-economic feasibility forecasts. (CIGRE, Round Table on UHV Transmission Feasibility, Subject 2)Google Scholar
  5. Bonnell J.A., Cabanes J., Hauf R. and Malboysson E., 198O - Electric and magnetic fields and man (J. Soc. Occup. Med., 30, 135–137 )CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bridges J.E. and Frazier M.J., 1979 - The effects of 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields on implanted cardiac pacemakers (IITRI/ EPRI Project 679–1, Final Report, September )Google Scholar
  7. Cabanes J. and Gary C., 1981 - La perception directe du champ électrique (CIGRE, Stockholm)Google Scholar
  8. Cerretelli P. and Malaguti C., 1976 - Research carried out in Italy by ENEL on the effects of High-voltage electric fields. ( R.G.E., n special, July, 65–74 )Google Scholar
  9. Cerretelli P., Veicsteinas A., Margonato V., Cantone A., Viola D. Malagutti C. and Previ A., 1978 - 1000 kV. project: research on the biological effects of 50 Hz electric fields in Italy (l8th. Annual Hanford Life Sciences Symposium, Richland, W.A., October 16–18 )Google Scholar
  10. Danilin V.A., Voronin A.K. and Modorskii V.A., 1969 - The state of health of personnel working in high-voltage electric fields (Gig. Tru. Prof. Zabol., 13, 5, 51–52 )Google Scholar
  11. Eisemann B., 1975 - Untersuchungen Uber Langzeiteinwirkung kleiner Wechselstrome 50 Hz auf den Menschen (Thèse, Fribourg i Br. sous la direction du Professeur HAUF )Google Scholar
  12. Filippov V., 1972 - Die Wechselfeld-wirkung auf den Menschen und schutzmassnahmen (2nd. Int. Colloquium on Prevention of Occupational Risks due to Electricity, ISSA, Cologne, 30 Nov.- 1er Dec. 70–80)Google Scholar
  13. Fole F.F., 1973 - “PAT” Phenomenon in electric power substations (Paper to the 2nd. Int. Coll. of the Int. Section of the ISSA, Cologne, 30 Nov.-1er Dèe. 1972. Medicina y Seguridad del Trabajo, 21, 81, 15–18, Janv.-Mars)Google Scholar
  14. Fole F.F. and Dutrus E., 1974 - Nueva aportación al estudios de los campos electromagnéticos generados por muy altas tensiones. (Med. Y Seg. del Trab., 22, 87, 25–44, July-September)Google Scholar
  15. Fulton J.P., 1980 - Electrical wiring configurations and childhood leukemia in Rhode Island (Amer. J. of Epidemiology, vol.111, n° 3, 292–296)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  16. GE/EPRI, 1978 - Electrostatic and electromagnetic effects under ultra-high voltage transmission (EPRI Report, n EL 802)Google Scholar
  17. Greenberg B., Kunich J.C. and Bindokas V.P., 1979 - The effects of high voltage transmission lines on honey bees (EPRI Project EA-841, RP 934–1, Final Report, phase 1)Google Scholar
  18. Groupe D’Etudes Medicales De L’U.N.I.P.E.D.E., 1982 - Effets des champs électromagnétiques en relation avec la production et la distribution de l’électricité. Etat actuel des connaissances. (Congrès de Bruxelles, 6–11 Juin)Google Scholar
  19. Hauf R., 1974 - Wirkung von 50 Hz Wechselfeldern auf den Menschen (ETZ-b, 26, 12, 318–320. CEGB Translation CE 6689)Google Scholar
  20. Johansson R., Lundquist E.G., Lundquist S. and Scuka V., 1973 - Is there a connection between electricity in the atmosphere and the function of man ? Part. 3 - Alternating fields. (POAC 2627 H5, September )Google Scholar
  21. Kalyada T.V., 1979 - Workshop on biological effects of physical factors in the Environment (Seattle, Wa, June 11–15 )Google Scholar
  22. Knave B., Gamberale F., Bergstrom S., Birke E., Iregren A., Kolmodin-Hedman and Wennberg A., 1979 - Long terme exposure to electric fields. A cross sectional epidemiologic investigation of occupationally exposed workers in high voltage substations. ( Electra, 65, 41–54 )Google Scholar
  23. Knave B., 1981 - Conference Sweden (CIGRE Stockholm)Google Scholar
  24. Korobkova V.P., Morozov Yu S., Stolarov M.S. and Yakub Yu A., 1972 - Influence of the electric fields in 5OO and 750 kV. switchyards on maintenance staff and means for its protection (CIGRE 23–06)Google Scholar
  25. Kouwenhoven W.B., Langworthy O.R., Singewald M.L. and Knicker-Bocker G.G., 1967 - Medical evaluation of man working in A.C. Electric fields (IEEE Trans. PAS 86, 4, 507–511 )Google Scholar
  26. Krivova T.I., Lukovkin V.V. and Morozov Yu A., 1977 - The influence of the human body of the electric field caused by high-voltage AC electrical installations ( C.E. Trans. 7496 )Google Scholar
  27. Malboysson E., 1976 - Medical control of men working within electromagnetic fields (Rev. Gen. Elec., July, 75–80 )Google Scholar
  28. Mantell B., 1975 - Untersuchungen über die Wirkung eines magnetischen Wechselfeldes 50 Hz auf den menschen (Thèse, Fribourg i. Br., sous la direction du Professeur HAUF )Google Scholar
  29. Marino A.A. and Becker R.O., 1977 - Biological effects of extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields: a review. (Physiol. Chem. and Physics, 9, 131–147)Google Scholar
  30. Marino A.A., Becker R.O. and Ulrich B., 1976 - The effect of continuous exposure to low frequency electric fields on three generations of mice: a pilot study (Experientia, 32, 5, 565–566)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Marino A.A., Cullen J.M. and Becker R.O., 1978 - Power frequency electric fields and biological stress: a cause and effect relationship (Conference on biological effects of ELF electromagnetic fields, Richland, Wa, Oct. 16–18 )Google Scholar
  32. Michaelson S.M., 1979 - Analysis of studies related to biologic effects and health implications of exposure to power frequencies (The Environmental Professional, 1, 217–232)Google Scholar
  33. Miller W.M., 1980 - American Journal of Epidemiology, 112–165Google Scholar
  34. Nordstrom S. and Birke E., 1979 - Investigation of possible genetic risks among employees of Vettenfall/sydkraft who had been exposed to 4OO kV. Summary of preliminary results (Press release, University of Umera, Department of Medical Genetics, 25 Oct.)Google Scholar
  35. Phillips R.D., 1979 - Health aspects of power transmission (Symposium on Energy and Human Health: Human Costs of Electric Power Generation ( Pittsburgh, PA, March 19–21 )Google Scholar
  36. Reichmanis M., Perry F.S., Marino A.A. and Becker R.O., 1979 - Relation between suicide and the electromagnetic fields of overhead power lines ( Physiol. Chem. and Physics, 11, 35–403 )Google Scholar
  37. Roberge P.F., 1976 - Study of the state of health of electrical maintenance workers on Hydro-Quebec 735 kV. power Transmission Systems ( Hydro-Quebec, September )Google Scholar
  38. Rupilius J.P., 1976 - Untersuchungen über die Wirkung eine elektrischen und magnetischen 50 Hz Wechselfeldes auf den menschen (Thèse, FRIBOURG i Br., sous la direction du Professeur HAUF )Google Scholar
  39. Sander R., Brinkmann J. and Kuhne B., 1982 - Etudes en laboratoire sur des animaux et des êtres humains soumis à des champs électriques et magnétiques à 50 Hz (CIGRE, Paris, 1–9 Sept.)Google Scholar
  40. Savin B.M., Shandam M.G., Nikonova K.V. and Morozov Yu A., 1978 - Methods for studying and criteria for evaluating the biological effects of electric fields of industrial frequency (Paper for the American-Soviet Symposium on superhigh supply lines, Tashkent, Mai )Google Scholar
  41. Sazonova T.E., 1967 - Physiological assessment of the work conditions in 400-500 kV. open switching-yard (Institute of Labour Protection of the VTSsPS, Moscou, Scientific Publications, n 46, 34–39 )Google Scholar
  42. Singewald M.L., Langworthy O.R. and Kouwenhoven W.B., 1973 - Medical follow-up study of high voltage linemen working in A.C. electric fields (IEEE Trans. Pas. 92, 4, 1307–1309 )Google Scholar
  43. Stopps G.J. and Janischewsky W., 1979 - Epidemiological study of workers maintaining HV equipment and transmission lines in Ontario (Canadian electrical Association Research Report)Google Scholar
  44. Strumza M.V., 1970 - Influence sur la santé humaine de la proximité des conducteurs d’électricité à haute tension. (Arch. Mal. Prof., 31, 6, 269–276 )Google Scholar
  45. Takagi T., 1976 - Electrostatic induction caused by extra-high voltage overhead transmission lines (Japan 1ERE Council, Document R76O4, June)Google Scholar
  46. Tucker R.D. and Schmitt O.H., 1978 - Tests for human perception of 60Hz moderate strength magnetic fields (IEEE Trans. BME-255 6, 509–518)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vyalov A.M., 1964 - On the problem of the effect of constant and variable magnetic fields on the human organism (Occup. Pathol., A.P. Shitskovy, Ed. Ministry of Health, Moscou, 169–175 )Google Scholar
  48. Wertheimer N. and Leeper E., 1979 - Electrical wiring configurations and childhood cancer (American Journal of Epidemiology, 109, 273–284)Google Scholar
  49. Wertheimer N. and Leeper E., 1982 - Adult cancer related to electrical wires near the home (International Journal of Epidemiology, vol, 11, no 4, 345–355)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean Cabanes
    • 1
  1. 1.Electricite De FranceParisFrance

Personalised recommendations