Historical Development of the Study of the Effects of ELF Fields

  • Sol M. Michaelson
  • Martino Grandolfo
  • Alessandro Rindi
Part of the Ettore Majorana International Science Series book series (PRIP)


Consideration of the historical development of the study of biological effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) fields should go back more than 2500 years, when Thales of Miletus (600 B.C.) observed that a piece of amber could be made to acquire the property of attracting small particles by rubbing it with a piece of cloth. Five hundred years later Lucretius of Magnesia (95–52 B.C.) noted the power of lodestone to attract iron.


Electric Power Research Institute High Voltage Transmission Line IEEE Power Engineer Society Animal Electricity Electric Field Exposure 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sol M. Michaelson
    • 1
  • Martino Grandolfo
    • 2
  • Alessandro Rindi
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Medicine and DentistryUniversity of RochesterRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Laboratorio di FisicaIstituto Superiore di SanitàRomaItaly
  3. 3.INFN Laboratori NazionaliFrascatiItaly

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