Advertisement

New antiviral compounds and impact in management of neoplastic disease and AIDS

  • Abraham Chachoua
  • Michael Green
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 36)

Abstract

The majority of viruses are associated with acute limited diseases in healthy hosts. For this reason, the development of safe and effective antiviral agents has until recently been slow.

Keywords

Herpes Simplex Herpes Zoster Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Herpes Virus Antiviral Agent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    De-The’ G, Geser A, Day NE, et al: Epidemiological evidence for causal relationship between Epstein-Barr virus and Burkitt’s lymphoma from Ugandan prospective study. Nature 274:756–761, 1978.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sugden B: Epstein-Barr virus: A human pathogen inducing lymphoproliferation in vivo and in vitro. Rev Inf Dis 4:1048–1061, 1982.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nahmiqs AJ, Josey WE, Naib ZM, et al: Antibodies to herpes virus hominis types 1 and 2 in humans. II. Women with cervical cancer. Am J Epidemiol 91:547–552, 1970.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aurelian L, David HJ, and Julian CG: Herpes virus type 2 induced, tumor-specific antigen in cervical carcinoma. Am J Epidemiol 89:1–9, 1973.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kit S and Dubbs DR: Acquisition of thymidine kinase activity by herpes simplex infected mouse fibroblast cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 11:55–59, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Powell K and Purifoy D: Nonstructural proteins of herpes simplex virus I. Purification of the induced DNA polymerase. J Virol 24:618–626, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hoffman PJ and Cheng Y: The deoxyribonuclease induced after infection of KB cells by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2. J Biol Chem 253:3557–3562, 1978.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Huszar D and Bacchetti S: Partial purification and characterization of the ribonucleotide reductase induced by herpes simplex virus infection of mammalian cells. J Virol 37:580–588, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kit S and Dubbs DR: Properties of deoxythymidine kinase partially purified from nonin-fected and virus-infected mouse fibroblast cells. Virology 26:16–27, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gilboa E, Mitra SW, Goff S, and Baltimore D: A detailed model of reverse transcription and tests of crucial aspects. Cell 18:93–100, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hughes SH, Shank PR, Spector DH, et al: Provirus of ovian sarcoma viruses are terminally redundant, coextensive with unintegrated linear DNA, and integrated at many sites. Cell 15:1379–1410, 1978.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Montagnier L: Lymphadenopathy associated virus: From molecular biology to pathogenicity. Ann Intern Med 5103:689–693, 1985.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Buchanan RA, Kinkel AW, Alford CA, et al: Plasma levels and urinary excretion of vidarabine after repeated dosing. Clin Pharmacol Ther 27:690–696, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Whitley R, Alford C, Hess F, et al. Vidaravine: A preliminary review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic use. Drugs 20:267–282, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ross AH, Julia A, and Balakrishnan C: Toxicity of adenine at arabinoside in humans. J Inf Dis 133 (suppl):A192–198, 1972.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Steissle G, Paessens A, and Oediger H: New antiviral compounds. Advances in Virus Research 30:83–138, 1985.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Whitley RJ, Nahmias AJ, Soong SJ, et al: Vidarabine therapy of neonatal herpes simplex infection. Pediatrics 66:495, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Whitley RJ, Soong SJ, Dolin R, et al: Early vidarabine therapy to control the complications of herpes zoster in immunosuppressed patients. N Engl J Med 307:971, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Park NH and Pavan-Langston D: In: Chemotherapy of Viral Infections, PE Came and LA Caliguiri (eds). New York: Springer, p 117–136, 1982.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Whitley RJ, Tucker BC, Kinkel AW, et al: Pharmacology, tolerance, and antiviral activity of vidarabine monophosphate in humans. Antimicrob Ag Chemother 18:709–715, 1980.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    DeClerq E, Descamps J, Verhelst G, et al: Comparative efficacy of antiherpes drugs against different strains of herpes simplex virus. J Inf Dis 141:563–576, 1980.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Crumpacker CS, Schnipper LE, Zaia JA, et al: Growth inhibition by acycloguanosine of herpes viruses isolated from human infections. Antimicrob Ag Chemother 15:642–645, 1979.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ellon GB: Mechanism of action and selectivity of acyclovir. Am J Med 73 (suppl 1A):7–13, 1982.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Miller WH and Miller RL: Phosphorylation of acyclovir (acycloguanosine) monophosphate by GMP kinase. J Biol Chem 255:7204–7207, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Whitley RJ, Blum MR, Barton N, et al: Pharmacokinetics of acyclovir in humans following intravenous administration. Am J Med 73 (suppl 1A): 165–171, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Van Dyke RB, Connor JD, Wyborny C, et al: Pharmacokinetics of orally administered acyclovir in patients with herpes progenitalis. Am J Med 73 (suppl 1A):172–175, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Blum MR, Liao SHT, and de Miranda P: Overview of acyclovir pharmacokinetic disposition in adults and children. Am J Med 73 (suppl 1A):186–192, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Brigden D and Whiteman P: The mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity of acyclovir, a review. J Inf 6 (suppl):3–9, 1983.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    McLaren C, Corey L, Dekket L, and Barry DW: In vitro sensitivity to acyclovir in genital herpes simplex viruses from acyclovir-treated patients. J Infect Dis 148:868–875, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Field AK, Davies ME, Dewitt C, et al: 9–2-hydroxy-l-hydroxymethyl ethoxymethyl guanine: A selective inhibitor of herpes group virus replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:4139–4143, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dolin R: Antiviral chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis. Science 227:1296–1303, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Causey DM, Leedam JM, and Heseltine PNR: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) penetration of 9-(l,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl) guanine in AIDS patients with cytomegalovirus infections. International Conference on AIDS 63, 1986.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Felsenstein D, D’Amico DJ, Hirsch MS, et al: Treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis with 9-[2-hydroxy-l-hydroxymethyl ethoxy methyl] guanine. Ann Intern Med 103:377–380, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chachoua A, Dieterich DT, Wernz J, and Muggia F: CMV infections in patients with AIDS treated with 9-l,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl guanine. International Conference on AIDS 63, 1986.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mansell P, Rolston K, Hoy J, et al: Treatment of CMV infections in patients with AIDS or following bone marrow transplantation with dihydroxy-propoxymethyl guanine (DHPG). International Conference on AIDS 62, 1986.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Eron L, Harvey L, Lane HC, et al: Treatment of CMV infectious in patients with AIDS by 9-l,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl guanine. International Conference on AIDS 64, 1986.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bauer DJ: Antiviral agents. 1: The antiviral nucleotides. In: The Specific Treatment of Virus Diseases, DJ Bauer (ed). Lancaster: MTP Press, p 19–70, 1977.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rapp F: Inhibition by metabolic analogues of plaque formation by herpes zoster and herpes simplex viruses. J Immunol 93:643–648, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nicholson KG: Properties of antiviral drugs. Lancet 503–506, 1984.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Itoi M, Gefler JW, Kaneko N, et al: Teratogenicities of opthalmic drugs. Arch Opthalmol 93:46–51, 1975.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Allaudeen HS, Kozarich JW, Bertino J, et al: On the mechanism of selective inhibition of herpes virus replication by E-5-(2 bromovinyl)-2’ deoxyuridine and related compounds. Antimicrob Ag Chemother 21:33–38, 1982.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tricot G, DeClercq E, Boogaerts MA, et al: Oral bromovinyldeoxyuridine therapy for herpes simplex and varicella zoster virus infections in severely immunosuppressed patients: A preliminary clinical trial. J Med Virol 18:11–20, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wildiers J and De-Clercq E: Oral E-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2-deoxyuridine treatment of severe herpes zoster in cancer patients. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 20(4):471–476, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    DeClercq E, Desgranges C, Herdewijn P, et al: Synthesis and antiviral activity of E-5–2-bromovinyl uracil and E-5–2-bromovinyl uridine. J Med Chem 29:213–217, 1986.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Watanabe KA, Reichman U, Hirota K, Lopez C, and Fox JJ: Nucleosides 110 synthesis and antiherpes virus activity of some 2’-Fluoro-2’-deoxyarabinofuranosyl pyrimidine nucleosides. J Med Chem 22:21–24, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mar EC, Chiou JF, Cheng YC, and Huang ES: Human cytomegalovirus-induced DNA polymerase and its interaction with the triphosphates of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-methyluracil-5-iodocytosine and 5-methylcytosine. J. Virol 56:846–851, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Smee DF, Campbell NL, and Matthews TR: Comparative antiherpes virus activities of 9-l-3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl guanine, acyclovir, and two 2’-fluoropyrimidine nucleoside. Antiviral Res 5:259–267, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Young CW, Schneider R, and Leyland-Jones B: Phase I evaluation of 2’-fluoro-5-iodo-l-B-D-arabinofuranosyl cytosine in immunosuppressed patients with herpes infection. Cancer Res 43:5006, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Leyland-Jones B, Donnelly H, and Myskowski P: FIAC, a potent new antiviral agent: Therapeutic superiority over ademine arabinoside (Ara-A) against varicella zoster infection in immunosuppressed patients. Clin Res 31:369A, 1983.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fanucchi M, Leyland-Jones B, Donnelly H, et al: Phase I evaluation of oral 2-fluoro-l-B-D-arabinofuranosyl cytosine (FIAC) in immunosuppressed patients with herpes zoster. Proc Amer Soc Clin One 3:96, 1984.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Fanucchi M, Leyland-Jones B, Young C, et al: Phase I trial of l,2-deoxy-2-fluoro-l-B-arabinofuranosyl-5-methyl uracil (FMAU). Cancer Treat Rep 69:55–59, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Chou TC, Kong XB, Potter NP, et al: Biochemical studies on 2’-fluoro-5-ethyl-l-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil FEAU: A highly selective antiviral agent. Proc Amer Assoc Cancer Res 26:333, 1985.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lee HJ, Pawlak K, Nguyen B, et al: Biochemical differences among four inosinate dehydrogenase inhibitors, mycophenolic acid, ribavirin, tiazofurin, and selenazofurin, studied in mouse lymphoma cell culture. Cancer Res 45:5512–5520, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Neidhart J, Metz E, Gochnour D, et al: Phase I study of tiazofurin. Proc Amer Soc Clin One 3:36, 1984.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Alonso MT, O’Dwyer PJ, Leyland-Jones B, and Ellenberg SS: Tiazofurin: Myelosuppres-sion at low doses relates to nephrotoxicity. Proc Amer Soc Clin One 3:35, 1984.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Melink T, Von Hoff D, Steinson L, et al: Phase I clinical trial of tiazofurin. Proc Amer Soc Clin One. 3:43, 19.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gallaher WR, Levitan DB, and Blough HA: Effect of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on cell fusion induced by Newcastle disease and herpes simplex viruses. Virol 55:193–201, 1973.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Courtney RJ, Steiner SM, and Benyish-Melnick M: Effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on herpes simplex replication. Virology 52:447–455, 1975.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Blough HA and Guintli RL: Successful treatment of human genital herpes infections with 2-deoxy-D-glucose. JAMA 241:2798–2801, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Blough HA, Thiry L, Sprecher-Golderger S, et al: Glycosylation inhibitors: Effect of LAV/HTLV-3. International Conference on AIDS 25, 1986.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Issacs A and Lindemann B: Virus interference: The interferon. Proc Royal Soc Lond (Biol) 147:258–267, 1957.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    White RJ and Klein F: Large-scale production of human lymphoblastoid interferon. Cancer Treat Rev 7:245–252, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Stiehm ER, Kronenberg LH, Rosenblatt HM, et al: Interferon: Immunology and clinical significance. Ann Intern Med 96:80–93, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Friedman-Kien A, Plasse T, Cremin P, et al: Natural leukocyte interferon for treatment of condylomata acuminata. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. In: Papilloma Viruses: Molecular and Clinical Aspects, p 217–233, 1985.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hayden FG, Albrecht JK, Kaiser DL, et al: Prevention of natural colds by contract prophylaxis with intranasal alpha (sub 2)-interferon. N Engl J Med 314(2): 71–75, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Beers RF and Braun W (eds): Biological Effects of Polynucleotides. New York: Springer-Verlag, p 344, 1977.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gresser I: Antitumor effects of interferon. In: Cancer — A Comprehensive Treatise (vol 5), F Becker (ed). New York: Plenum Publishing Corp, 521–571, 1977.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Tovey M and Maunoury MT: Role of endogenous interferon in the antitumor effect of poly I: C and statolon as demonstrated by the use of anti-mouse interferon serum. Int J Cancer 21:72–77, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sikora K (ed): Interferon and Cancer. New York: Plenum Press, 1983.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kreider JW and Benjamin SA: Tumor immunity and the mechanism of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid inhibition of tumor growth. J Natl Can Inst 49:1303–1310, 1972.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Levy HB, Asofsky R, Riley R, et al: The mechanism of antitumor action of poly I poly C. Ann NY Acad Sci 173:640–648, 1970.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Robinson RA, DeVita VT, Levy HB, et al: A phase I-II trial of multiple-dose poly-riboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid in patients with leukemia or solid tumors. J Natl Can Inst 57:599, 602, 1976.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Nordlund J, Wolff S, and Levy JB: Inhibition of biological activity of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid by human plasma. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 133:439–444, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Levy HB, Baer G, Baron S, et al: A modified polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid complex that induces interferon in primates. J Inf Dis 132:434–439, 1975.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Purcell RH, London WT, McAuliffe VJ, et al: Modification of chronic hepatitis-B virus infection in chimpanzees by administration of an interferon inducer. Lancet: 757–760, 1976.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Levy HB, London W, Fuccillo DA, et al: Prophylastic control of simian hemorrhagic fever in monkeys by an interferon inducer, polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid-poly-L-lysine. J Inf Dis 133:A256-A259, 1976.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Levy HB: Induction of interferon in vivo by polynucleotides. Texas Rep on Biol & Med 35:91–98, 1977.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Levy HB: Personal communication.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Levine AS, Sivulich M, Wiernic P, and Levy HB: Initial clinical trials in cancer patients of polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid stabilized with poly-L-lysine in carboxymethyl cellulose [Poly (ICLC)], a highly effective interferon inducer. Can Res 39:1645–1650, 1979.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Carter WA, Strayer DR, Hubbell HR, et al: Preclinical studies with ampligen (mismatched double-stranded RNA). J Biol Response Mod (4)5:495–502, 1986.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Nichol FR: Antimicrobial Agents. Chemother 9:433, 1976.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Larsen ER, Hamilton RO, Gray JE, and Clark JJ: In: Current Chemotherapy and Infectious Disease, (vol 2), JD Nelson and G Grassi (eds). p 1413–1414, 1986.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Stringfellow DA, Vanderberg HD, and Weed SD: Interferon induction by 5-halo-6-phenylpyridinones. J Interferon Res 1:1–14, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Fast PE, Hatfield CA, Sun EL, and Stringfellow DA: Polyclonal B-cell activation and stimulation of specific antibody responses by 5-halo pyrimidinones with antiviral and antineoplastic activity. J Biol Resp Modif 1.199–215, 1982.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Loughman BE, Givvons AJ, Taggart MT, and Renis HE: Modulation of mouse natural killer cell activity by interferon and two antiviral isocytosines. Curr Chemother Infect Dis. Proc Int Congr Chemother (11th), JD Nelson and C Grassi (eds). Washington DC: Am Soc Microbiol, 2:1398–1400, 1980.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lotzova E, Savary C, Khan A, and Stringfellow D: Stimulation of natural killer cells in two random-bred stains of athymic mice by interferon-inducing pyrimidinone. J Immunol 135:2566–2570, 1984.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Milas L, Hunter N, Ito H, Lotzova E, and Stringfellow DA: Studies on the antitumor activities of pyrimidinone-interferon inducers. II. Potentiation of antitumor resistance mechanisms. Clin Exp Metastasis 1:213–222, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Wierenga W, Schulnick HI, Stringfellow DA, et al: 5-substituted 2-amino-6-phenyl-4(3H)-pyrimidinones. Antiviral and interferon inducing agents. J Med Chem 23:237–239, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Weed SD, Kramer GD, and Stringfellow DA: Antiviral properties of 6-aryl pyrimidines. Curr Chemother Infect Dis. Proc Int Congr Chemother (11th), JD Nelson and C Grassi (eds). Washington DC: Am Soc Microbiol, 2:1408–1409, 1980.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hamdy AH and Stringfellow DA: Effect of 2-amino-5-bromo-6-phenyl-4-pyrimidinol in calves infected with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. Curr Chemother Infect Dis. Proc Int Congr Chemother (11th), JD Nelson and C Grassi (eds). Washington DC: Am Soc Microbiol, 2:1404–1406, 1980.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hamilton RD, Wynalda MA, Fitzpatrick FA, et al: Comparison between circulating interferon and drug levels following administration of 2-amino-5-bromo-6-phenyl-4(3H)-pyrimidinone (ABPP) to different animal species. J Interferon Res 2:317–322, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Milas L, Hersh EM, Stringfellow DA, and Hunter N: Studies on the antitumor activities of pyrimidinone-interferon inducers. I. Effect against artificial and spontaneous lung metastases of murine tumors. J Natl Cancer Inst 68:139–145, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Milas L and Hunter N: Antitumor activity of pyrimidinone-interferon inducers. Proc Amer Assoc Cancer Res 22:289, 1981.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Sidky Y, Borden EC, Wierenga W, et al: Antitumor effects of interferons and two interferon-inducing pyrimidinones. Proc Amer Assoc Cancer Res 26:1087, 1985.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kettering JD, Kelln L, Gridley DS, and Nutter RL: The effect of multi-modal immunotherapy on mice injected with herpes virus type 2 transformed cells. Proc Am Soc Microbiol, 83rd Annual Meeting, 1983.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Chang AYC, Pandya KJ, Stringfellow DA, and Chuang C: Treatment of DMBA-induced rat mammary cancer by 2-amino-5-bromo-6-phenyl-4(3H) pyrimidinone (ABPP) tamoxifen. J Interferon Res 3:299–304, 1983.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Wierenga W: Antiviral and other bioactivities of pyrimidinones. Pharmacol Therapeut (in press), 1986.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Rios A, Stringfellow DA, Fitzpatrick FA, et al: Phase I study of ABPP, an oral interferon inducer, in cancer patients. J Biol Response Mod (in press), 1986.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Stephen EL, et al: In: Ribavirin: A Broad Spectrum Antiviral Agent. RA Smith and W Kirkpatrick (eds). New York: Academic Press, p 169–183, 1980.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Crumpacker CS: Overview of ribavirin treatment of infection caused by RNA viruses. In: Clinical Applications of Ribavirin. RA Smith, V Knight, and JAD Smith (eds). New York: Academic Press, p 33–39, 1984.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Huggins et al: Efficacy of ribavirin against virulent RNA virus infections. In: Clinical Applications of Ribavirin. RA Smith, V Knight, and JAD Smith (eds). New York: Academic Press, p 49–65, 1984.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Sidwell RW: In vitro and in vivo inhibition of DNA viruses by ribavirin. In: Clinical Applications of Ribavirin. RA Smith, V Knight, and JAD Smith (eds). New York: Academic Press, p 19–33, 1984.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    McCormick JB, Getchell JP, Mitchell SW, and Hicks DR: Ribavirin suppresses replication of LAV In cultures of human adult T lymphocytes. Lancet 11:1367–1369, 1984.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Conner JD, et al: Ribavirin pharmacokinetics in children and adults during therapeutic trials. In: Clinical Applications of Ribavirin. RA Smith, V Knight, and JAD Smith (eds). New York: Academic Press, p 107–125, 1984.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Catlin DH: 14C Ribavirin: Distribution and pharmacokinetic studies in rats, baboons, and man. In: Ribavirin: A Broad Spectrum Antiviral Agent. RA Smith and W Kirkpatric (eds). New York: Academic Press, p 215–230, 1980.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Gilbert BE, et al: Ribavirin small particle aerosol treatment of influenza in college students 1981–1983. In: Clinical Applications of Ribavirin. RA Smith, V Knight, and JAD Smith (eds). New York: Academic Press, p 125–145, 1984.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Schiff GM, et al: Small particle aerosol of ribavirin in therapy of influenza — Cincinnati study. In: Clinical Applications of Ribavirin. RA Smith, V Knight, and JAD Smith (eds). New York: Academic Press, p 165–173, 1984.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Canonico PG, Kende M, and Huggins JW: The toxicity and pharmacology of ribavirin in experimental animals. In: Clinical Applications of Ribavirin. RA Smith, V Knight, and JAD Smith (eds). New York: Academic Press, p 65–79, 1984.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Shulman NR: Assessment of hematologic effects of ribavirin in humans. In: Clinical Applications of Ribavirin. RA Smith, V Knight, and JAD Smith (eds). New York: Academic Press, p 79–93, 1984.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Smith RA and Kirkpatrick W (eds): Ribavirin: A Broad Spectrum Antiviral Agent. New York: Academic Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Hall CB, et al: Aerosolized ribavirin treatment of infants with respiratory syncytical virus infection. A randomized double-blind study. NEJM 308(24): 1443–1447, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Hall CB, et al: Ribavirin in the treatment of respiratory syncytial viral infections. In: Clinical Applications of Ribavirin. RA Smith, V Knight, and JAD Smith (eds). New York: Academic Press, p 165–173, 1984.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Hall CB, et al: Ribavirin treatment of respiratory syncytial viral infection in infants with underlying cardiopulmonary disease. JAMA 254:3047–3052, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Taber LH, Gilbert BE, and Wilson SZ: Ribavirin aerosol treatment of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in infants, 1981–1983. In: Clinical Applications of Ribavirin. RA Smith, V Knight, and JAD Smith (eds). New York: Academic Press, p 155–165, 1984.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    McCormick JB, King IJ, and Webb PA: Lassa fever: Effective therapy with ribavirin. N Engl J Med 314:20–27, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    McCormick JB, et al: Chemotherapy of acute Lassa fever with ribavirin. In: Clinical Applications of Ribavirin. RA Smith, V Knight, and JAD Smith (eds). New York: Academic Press, p 187–192, 1984.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Laskin R, Longstreth J, Hart C, et al: Pharmacokinetics of ribavirin in patients with AIDS related complex. International Conference on AIDS 68, 1986.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Roberts R, Scavuzzo D, Laurence J, et al: Effects of short-term oral ribavirin in high risk patients for AIDS. International Conference on AIDS 68, 1986.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Crumpacker C, Bubley G, Hussey S, et al: Evaluation of oral ribavirin therapy on immunologic and viral parameters in AIDs and ARC. International Conference on AIDS 34, 1986.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Stridh S, Helgstrand E, Lannero B, et al: The effect of pyrophosphate analogues on influenza virus RNA polymerase and influenza virus multiplication. Arch Virol 61:245–250, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Oberg B: Antiviral effects of phosphonoformate. Pharmaco Ther 19:387–415, 1983.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Sandstrom EG, Kaplan J, Byington RE, and Hirsch M: Inhibition of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III in vitro by phosphonoformate. Lancet 1:1480–1482, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Beldekas JC, Levy EM, Black P, Von Krogh G, and Sandstrom E: In vitro effect of foscarnet on expansion of T-cells from people with LAS and AIDS. Lancet 11:1128–1129, 1985.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Beldekas JC: (in press), 1985.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Friedman-Kien A: Personal communication.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Farthing CF, Dalgleism AG, Clark AL, et al: Pilot study on the treatment of AIDS and ARC patients with intravenous foscarnet. International Conference on AIDS 35, 1986.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Hawking F: Suramin, with special reference to onchocerciasis. Adv Pharmacol Chemother 15:289–322, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Mitsuya H, et al: Suramin protection of T-cells in vitro against infectivity and cytopathic effect of HTLV III. Science 226:172–174, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Broder S, et al: Effects of suramin on HTLV III/LAV infection presenting as Kaposi’s sarcoma on AIDS-related complex: Clinical pharmacology and suppression of virus replication in vivo. Lancet 11:627–630, 1985.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Rouvroy D, et al: Short-term results with suramin for AIDS-related conditions. Lancet 1:878, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Busch W, et al: Suramin treatment for AIDS. Lancet II: 1247, 1985.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Cheson B, Levine A, Mildvan D, et al: Suramin therapy in AIDS and related diseases. Initital report of the US Suramine Working Group. International Conference on AIDS 35, 1986.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Jasmin C, Chermann JC, Herve G, et al: In vivo inhibition of murine leukemia and sacroma viruses by the heteropolyanion 5-tungsto-2-antimoniate. J Nat Cancer Inst 53:469–474, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Chermann JC, Sinoussi FC, and Jasmin C: Inhibition of FNA-dependent DNA polymerase of murine oncornaviruses by ammonium-5-tungsto-2-antimoniate. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 65:1229–1236, 1975.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Kimberlin RH and Walker CA: The antiviral compound HPA-23 can prevent scrapie when administered at the time of infection. Arch Virol 78:9–18, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Dormont D, Spire B, Barre-Sinoussi F, Montaigner L, and Chermann JC: Inhibition of RNA-dependent DNA polymerases of AIDS and SAIDS retroviruses by HPA-23 (ammonium-21-tungsto-9-antimoniate). Ann Inst Pasteur/Virol 136E:75–83, 1985.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Rozenbaum W, et al: Antimoniotungstate (HPA-23) treatment of three patients with AIDS and one with prodrone. Lancet I: 450–451, 1985.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Dormont D, Maillet T, Di-Maria H, et al: Virologic and immunologic follow-up of 15 patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex and 4 LAV/HTLV III seropositive patients treated with daily IV doses of HPA-23 during 4 to 15 months. International Conference on AIDS 34, 1986.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Furman PA, St Clair M, Weinhold K, Fyfe JA, Nusinoff-Lehrman S, and Barry DW: Selective inhibition of HTLV-III by BWA509U (abstract no 44). In: Program and Abstracts of the 25th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Minneapolis: American Society for Micribiology, 1985.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Hardy WD, Zuckerman EE, Nusinoff-Lehrman S, and Barry DW: Antiviral effects of BWA509U against a naturally occurring feline acquired immune deficiency syndrome (abstract no 438). In: Program and Abstracts of the 25th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Minneapolis: American Society for Micribiology, 1985.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Mitsuya H, Weinhold KJ, Furman PA, et al: 3’-azido-3’deoxythymidine (BWA509U): An antiviral agent that inhibits the infectivity and cytopathic effect of human T-lymphotropic virus type Ill/lymphadenopathy-associated virus in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:7096–7100, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Blum R, Liao S, Good S, et al: Pharmacokinetics of azidothymidine (AZT) following intravenous and oral administration. International Conference on AIDS 26, 1986.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    DeMiranda P, Good SS, Blum MR, et al: The effect of probenecid on the pharmacokinetic disposition of azidothymidine (AZT). International Conference on AIDS 67, 1986.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Yarchoan R, Klecker RW, Weinhold KJ, et al: Administration of 3-azido-3-deoxythymidine, an inhibitor of HTLV-III/LAV replication, to patients with AIDs or AIDS-related complex. Lancet 1:575–586, 1985.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Boston 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abraham Chachoua
  • Michael Green

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations