Extragonadal and central nervous system germ cell tumors: A review of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies

  • Eliot L. Friedman
  • Marc B. Garnick
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 36)


Neoplasms arising in germ cells are relatively uncommon, but are highly curable malignancies. The incidence of primary testicular tumors ranges from approximately 2.1 to 3.1 cases per 100,000 males in the United States and Great Britain [1]. Amongst those cases of germ cell tumors about 1% to 2% have an extragonadal origin. These tumors possess a similar spectrum of pathologies as their primary testicular counterparts [2–6] and include all types of seminomas and nonseminomas. A scheme of the interrelationship of these neoplasms was developed by Teilum [7] and is depicted in figure 1. Several controversies surround the subject of extragonadal germ cell tumors (EGGCT) including their pathogenesis and etiology, the question of ‘burned out’ testicular primaries, the necessity for orchiectomy, and the observation that these tumors may be more refractory to the standard chemotherapeutic regimens used in primary testicular cancer. This review will attempt to provide a review of EGGCT’s including their origin, clinical syndromes, past therapeutic strategies, and further directions of treatment.


Germ Cell Germ Cell Tumor Embryonal Carcinoma Primordial Germ Cell Pineal Tumor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Boston 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eliot L. Friedman
  • Marc B. Garnick

There are no affiliations available

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