Applications of NDE to the Processing of Metals

  • Jean F. Bussière
Conference paper
Part of the Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation book series (RPQN, volume 6 A)

Abstract

Presently conceived automated metals processing systems have reached a high degree of complexity and incorporate not only control hardware but algorithms based on computer simulations and models of processes and a multiplicity of sensors for monitoring process and geometrical parameters, as well as material properties during the various stages of processing1-4. In such systems, sensors which can nondestructively measure material properties during processing provide information which can be used to verify, simplify and eventually improve the control algorithms. Also by directly providing the quantities of interest, such sensors relax the requirements on other measurements (such as temperature) from which material properties are traditionally inferred. In addition, material property sensors used near the end of the process insure that specifications are being met, regardless of the performance of automated systems upstream. In some cases the availability of new techniques capable of monitoring the evolution of microstructure during initial phases of processing may also help develop new and simpler metallurgical processes resulting in simultaneous improvements of quality and productivity.

Keywords

Permeability Titanium Porosity Anisotropy Chromium 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    H. Yada and K. Kawashima, “Important Metallurgical Parameters that must be Determined to Control the Properties of Steels During Processing”, presented at the 2nd Int. Symposium on the Nondestructive Characterization of Materials, Montreal, July 21–23, 1986, to be published (Plenum Press).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    K.K. Kappmeyer and W. Rail, “Process Control Needs for Future Steelmaking”, ASM Metals Progress, Detroit, Mich. Sept. 1984 (ASM Reprint No. 8404-005).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    P.R. Bridenbaugh, “Integrated Manufacturing Technology: An Aluminum Overview”, ASM Metals Congress, Detroit, Mich. Sept. 1984 (ASM reprint No. 8408-008).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. Mehrabian and H.N. Wadley, “Needs for Process Control in Advanced Materials Processing”, Journal of Metals, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp 51–58 (1985).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anonymous, “Analysing Molten Steel with a Laser”, Photonics Spectra, Sept. 1983, p. 20.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    T.L. Mansfield, “Ultrasonic Technology for Measuring Molten Aluminum Quality”, Materials Evaluation, Vol. 41 (1983) p. 743.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    N.D.G. Mountford, L.J. Heaslip, E. Bednarek and A.N. Sinclair, “The Development of an Ultrasonic Sensor for Metal Quality in Steel Casting Tundishes”, Proc. of the 5th Int. Iron and Steel Congress, April 6–7, 1986, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A.A. Tzavaras and H.D. Brody, “Problems in the Physics of Continuous Casting of Steel”, from Physics in the Steel Industry, AIP Conference Proceedings No. 84, edited by F.C. Schwerer, American Int. of Physics, N.Y. 1982, p. 71.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.P. Wallace, D.C. Kunerth and R.M. Siegfried, “An Eddy Current Study of Casting” in Eddy-current Characterization of Materials and Structures. ASTM STP722, G. Birnbaum and G. Free, ed ASTM, 1981, pp. 173–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Kawashima, H. Soga and K. Iwai, “Electromagnetic Ultrasonic Inspection and its Applications”, Nippon Steel Technical Report No. 21, pp. 315–329 (June 1983).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R.L. Parker, J.R. Manning and N.C. Peterson, “Application of Pulse-echo Ultrasonics to Locate the Solid/Liquid Interface During Solification and Melting of Steel and Other Metals”, J. Appl. Phys. 58, pp. 4150–4164, (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J.-P. Monchalin “Optical Detection of Ultrasound at a Distance Using a Confocal Fabry-Pérot Interferometer” Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol 47, p. 14, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    G. Labbe, A. LeBon and C. Maeder “Application of Eddy Currents to the Control of Cooling on a Hot Strip Mill”, (in french), Proc. of the First European Conf. on NDT, April 24/28, 1978, Mainz, Germany, p. 181.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Morita, K. Hashiguchi, D. Hashimoto, M. Nishida and S. Okanv, “On-line Transformation Detector for Property Control of Hot Rolled Steel”, Proc. of the First European Conf. on NDT, April 24/28, 1978, Mainz, Germany, p. 181.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. F. Bussiire “On-line Measurement of the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Steel”, Materials Evaluation, 44, No. 5, 560 (1986).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    R.A. Chihoski, “Conductivity-Hardness Reveal Heat Treat History of Aluminum Alloys, Metals Progress”, May 1983, pp. 27–32.Google Scholar
  17. 16a.
    R.A. Chihoski, “Conductivity-Hardness Reveal Heat Treat History of Aluminum Alloys, Metals Progress”, July 1983, pp. 27–34.Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    K. Kurita, “Measuring Technology in Continuous Annealing” Trans ISIJ, Vol. 26, 3 (1986).Google Scholar
  19. 18.
    G.S. Tomilov “Magnetic Testing of the Structure and Hardness of Steel Components, Based on Measurements of the Local Residual Magnetization Field”, Soviet J. NDT, 1966, No. 4, p 316.Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    A. Randak, “On-line Inspection of Semi-finished and Finished Steel Products for Surface Defects and Internal Quality” in On-line Inspection of Steel Products, International Iron and Steel Institute, Committee on Technology, Brussels 1983, pp 1–20.Google Scholar
  21. 20.
    G. Syke and I. Murray, “Some magnetic Methods of Nondestructive Examination: Part 1; Measurement of Hardness in a Continuous Annealer”, in Nondestructive Examination in the Steel Industry, ISI Publication No. 103, The Iron and Steel Institute 1967, p 109.Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    M.D. Waltz and H.P. Halsey, “A noncontact magnetic hardness gauge”, Instrumentation in the Iron and Steel Industry, Vol. 20, pp 10–16 (1970).Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    C. Rinik, J.E. Hilliard and J.B. Cohen, “S0L-X: An on-line nondestructive Method for Measuring Grain Size with X-rays”, J. of Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 2, pp 133–138, (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    K. Goebbels, “Structure analysis by Scattered Ultrasonic Radiation”, ch. 4, p 87 in Research Techniques in Nondestructive Testing, Vol. II, R.S. Sharpe, ed., Academic Press (1980).Google Scholar
  25. 24.
    W.N. Reynolds and R.L. Smith “Ultrasonic wave attenuation spectra in steels”, J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys., Vol. 17, pp 109–116 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    J.-P. Monchalin and J.F. Bussière “Measurement of ultrasonic absorption by thermo-emissivity”, Nondestructive Methods for Material Property Determination,edited by C.O. Ruud and R.E. Green, Plenum, N.Y.1 1984, pp. 289 – 298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    J.-P. Monchalin and J.F. Bussière, “Infrared detection of ultrasonic absorption and application to the determination of absorption in steel”, Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol IVB, edited by D.O. Thompson and D.E. Chimenti, Plenum, N.Y. p. 965 (1985).Google Scholar
  28. 27.
    P. Langlois and J.F. Bussière “Magnetoelastic Contribution to Ultrasonic Attenuation in Structural Steels”, presented at the 2nd Int. Symposium on the Nondestructive Characterization of Materials, Montreal, July 21–23, 1986 (to be published by Plenum Press).Google Scholar
  29. 28.
    E.P. Papadakis, “The inverse problem in materials characterization through ultrasonic attenuation and velocity measurements”, Nondestructive Methods for Material Property Determination, edited by C.O. Ruud and R.E. Green, Plenum, N.Y., 1984, pp. 151–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 29.
    N. Grayeli, F. Stanke and J.C. Shyne, “Prediction of grain size in copper using acoustic attenuation measurements”, 1982 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, Vol 2, p. 954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 30.
    H. Willems and K. Goebbels, “Characterization of microstructure by backscattered ultrasonic waves”, Metal Science, Vol. 15, pp 549–553, Nov.-Dec. 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 31.
    N. Grayeli and J.C. Shyne, “Effect of microstructure and prior austenite grain size on acoustic velocity and attenuation in steel”, Review of Progress in Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. IV, Plenum Press, N.Y. 1985.Google Scholar
  33. 32.
    N. Grayeli and J.C. Shyne “Acoustic Attenuation in two-phase Materials”, Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (D.O. Thompson and D.E. Chimenti eds), Vol. 3B, pp 1107 ( Plenum Press, N.Y. 1984 ).Google Scholar
  34. 33.
    Anonymous “On-line monitor to check grain size of alloy strip”, Metals Progress, March 1985, p 18.Google Scholar
  35. 34.
    R. Klinman, C.R. Webster, F.J. Marsh and E.T. Stephenson, “Ultrasonic Prediction of grain size, strength and toughness in plain carbon steel”, Materials Evaluation, Vol 39, Oct. 1980, pp 26–32.Google Scholar
  36. 35.
    R. Klinman and E.T. Stephenson, “Ultrasonic prediction of grain size and mechanical properties of plain carbon steel”, Materials Evaluation, Vol. 39, Nov. 1981, pp 1116–1120.Google Scholar
  37. 36.
    B.E. Droney, “Use of ultrasonic techniques to assess the mechanical properties of steels”, Nondestructive Methods for Materials Property Determination, edited by C.O Ruud and R.E. Green, Plenum Press, New York, 1984, pp 237–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 37.
    P.R. Mould and T.E. Johnson, Jr., “Rapid assessment of drawability of cold-rolled low carbon steel sheets”, Sheet Metal Industries, June 1973, p 328.Google Scholar
  39. 38.
    C.A. Stickels and P.R. Mould, “The use of Young’s Modulus for Predicting the Plastic-Strain Ratio of Low-carbon Steel Sheets”, Metallurgical Transactions, Vol. 1, p 1303, 1970.Google Scholar
  40. 39.
    H. Kitagawa, M. Katayama and H. Maruyama, “Three-dimensional Representation of Texture and Anisotropics of Mechanical Properties in Cold-rolled Mild Steel Sheet”, Transactions of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, Vol. 22, (1982), 424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 40.
    J. F. Bussière, C.K. Jen, I. Makarow, B. Bacroix, Ph. Lequeu and J.J. Jonas, “Correlations Between Elastic and Plastic Anisotropy in Rolled Metal Plates”, presented at the 2nd International Symposium on the Nondestructive Characterization of Materials, Montreal, July 21–23, 1986 (to be published by Plenum Press).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean F. Bussière
    • 1
  1. 1.Industrial Materials Research InstituteNational Research Council of CanadaBouchervilleCanada

Personalised recommendations