Sex Steroid Receptors and Non-Receptor Binding Proteins

  • Ian P. Callard
  • Gloria V. Callard

Abstract

Steroid hormones are primary regulators in many systems. Estrogens, androgens and progestogens regulate reproduction and attendant functions; corticosteroids control protein, water and ion balance; and the secosteroids are responsible for calcium homeostasis. Reviews of interest to comparative endocrinologists have described the physiological aspects of steroid actions in each of these subject areas.30,51,62,82,100a Although this paper is intended primarily to review sex steroid receptors in subavian vertebrates, reference is made to birds and mammals for purposes of orientation.

Keywords

Corticosteroid Cortisol Glucocorticoid Pseudomonas Streptomyces 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Alberts, B. and Herrick, G. (1970). DNA-cellulose chromatography. In “Methods in Enzymology,” Vol. XXI “Nucleic Acids” (L. Grossman and K. Moldare, eds.), pp. 198–217. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arnold, A. and Saltiel, A. (1979). Sexual differences in pattern of hormone communication in the brain of a songbird. Science 205, 702–705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Banksdale, A.W. (1969). Sexual hormones of Achyla and other fungi. Science, 166, 831–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bardin, C.W. and Mahoudeau, J.A. (1970). Dynamics of androgen metabolism in women with hirsutism. Ann. Clin. Res. 2, 251–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bardin, C.W., Musto, N., Gunsalus, G., Kotite, N., Chey, S.-L., Laurea, F. and Bechei, R. (1981). Extracellular androgen binding proteins. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 43, 189–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baulieu, E.E., Goleaan, F., Schorderet, M., and Schorderet-Slatkine, S. (1978). Steroid-induced meiotic division in Xenopus laevis oocytes: Surface and calcium. Nature (London) 275, 593–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Benno, R.H. and Williams, T.H. (1978). Evidence for intracellular localization of alpha-feto-protein in the developing rat brain. Brain Res. 142, 182–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Blondeau, J.-P and Beaulieu, E.E. (1984). Progesterone receptor characterized by photoaffinity labelling in the plasma membrane of Xenopus laevis oocytes. Biochem. J. 219, 785–792.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Blondeau, J.-P. and E.E. Beaulieu. (1985). Progesterone-inhibited phosphorylation of an unique Mr 48,000 protein in the plasma membrane of Xenopus laevis oocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 260, 3617–3625.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Boffa, G.A., Martin, B., Winchenne, J.J. and Ozon, R. (1972). Steroidprotein interaction in human, amphibian and cyclostomic sera. Analytical ion exchange chromatography. Biochimie 54, 1137–1145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bordin, S., and Petra, P.H. (1980). Immunocytochemical localization of the sex steroid-binding protein of plasma in tissues of the adult monkey Macaca nemestrina. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 5678–5682.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bradley, A.J., McDonald, I.R. and Lee, A.K. (1980). Stress and mortality in a small marsupial (Antechenus stuarti Macleay). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 40, 188–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brinkmann, A.O., Mulder, E., Lamers-Stahlhofen, G.J.M., Mechielsen, M.J. and van der Molen, W.J. (1972). An estradiol receptor in rat testis interstitial tissues. FEBS Lett. 26, 301–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bullen, R.E. and O’Malley, B.W. (1976). The biology and mechanism of steroid hormone receptor interaction with the eukaryotic nucleus. Biochem. Pharmacol. 25, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Burns, J.M. and Rose, F.L. (1980). Testosterone, estrogen binding protein in sexually mature larvae of Ambystoma tigrinum. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 41, 314–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Callard, G.V. (1983). Androgen and estrogen actions in the vertebrate brain. Amer. Zool. 23, 607–620.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Callard, G.V. and Mak, P. (1985). Exclusive nuclear location of estrogen receptors in Squalus testis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 82, 1336–1340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Callard, G.V., Pudney, J.A., Mak, P. and Canick, J. (1985). Stagedependent changes in steroidogenic enzymes and estrogen receptors during spermatogenesis in the testis of the dogfish, Squalus acanthias. Endocrinology 117, 1328–1335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cavreau, S., Drosdowsky, M.A. and Courot, M. (1984). Androgen-binding proteins in sheep epididymis: Age-related effects on androgen receptor and testosterone concentrations. Correlation with histological studies. J. Endocr. 103, 281–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cheng, C.Y., Musto, N.A., Gunsalus, G.L., Frich, J. and Bardin, C.W. (1985). There are two forms of androgen binding protein in human testes. J. Biol. Chem. 260, 5631–5640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Corvol, P. and Bardin, C.W. (1973). Species distribution of testosterone-binding globulin. Biol. Reprod. 8, 277–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    DeKloet, E.R. and McEWen, B.S. (1976). A putative glucocorticoid receptor and a transcortin-like macromolecule in pituitary cytosol. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 421, 115–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Delrio, G., Citarella, F. and D’Istria, M. (1980). Androgen receptor in the thumb pad of Rana esculentat Dynamic aspects. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 26, 281–283.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    D’Istria, M., Citarella, Iela, L. and Delrio, G. (1979). Characterization of a cytoplasmic androgen receptor in the male secondary sexual character of Green Frog (Rana esculenta). J. Steroid Biochem. 10, 53–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    D’Istria, M., Delrio, G. and Chieffi, G. (1975). Receptors for sex hormones in the skin of the amphibia. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 26, 281–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dower, W.J. and Ryan, K.J. (1976). A cytoplasmic estrone-specific binding protein in hen liver. Fed. Proc. 35, 1366.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Duchman, H., and L. Trager. (1979). Progesterone binding protein from Streptomyces hydrogenans. J. Steroid Biochem. 10, 277–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dufaure, J.-P, Mak, P., and Callard, I.P. (1983). Estradiol binding activity in epididymal cytosol of the turtle, Chrysemys picta. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 51, 61–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dufy, B., Vincent, J.-D, Fleury, H., duPasquier, P., Gowrdji, D. and Tixier-Vidal, A. (1979). Dopamine interaction of action potentials in a prolactin secretory cell line is modulated by oestrogen. Nature (London) 282, 855–857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Edelman, I.S. and Fimignani, G.M. (1968). On the biochemical mechanism of action of aldosterone. Rec. Prog. Horm. Res. 24:1–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Edwards, P.M., Jacquemyns, C.R. and Rousseau, G.G. (1981). Melanosome aggregation by corticosteroids: evidence for a novel type of steroid action. J. Steroid Biochem. 15, 17–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Erickson, G.F., Magoffin, D.A., Dyer, C.A. and Hafeditz, C. (1985). The ovarian androgen producing cells: a review of structure/function relationships. Endocr. Rev. 6, 371–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Evans, R.W., Chen, T.J., Hendry, W.J. III and Leavitt, W.W. (1980). Progesterone regulation of the estrogen receptor in the hamster uterus during the estrous cycle. Endocrinology 107, 383–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ewing, L.L. and Zirkin, B. (1983). Leydig cell structure and steroidogenic function. Rec. Prog. Horm. Res. 39, 599–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Feldman, D., Do, Y., Burshell, A., Stathis, P. and Loore, D.S. (1982). An estrogen-binding protein and endogenous ligand in Saccharamyces cerevisiae: possible hormone receptor system. Science 213, 297–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fine, M.L., Keefer, D.A., and Leichnetz, G.R. (1982). Testosterone uptake in the brainstem of a sound producing fish. Science 215, 1265–1267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fostier, A. and Breton, B. (1975). Binding of steroids by plasma of a teleost: the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdnerii. J. Steroid Biochem. 6, 345–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fox, T.O. (1975). Androgen and estrogen binding macromolecules in developing mouse brain: biochemical and genetic evidence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ((USA) 72, 4303–4307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fox, T.O. and Pardee, A.B. (1971). Proteins made in the mammalian cell cycle. J. Biol. Chem. 245, 6159–6165.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Freeman, H.C. and Idler, D.R. (1969). Sex hormone binding proteins II. Isolation from serum of an elasmobranch (Raja radiata). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 13, 83–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Freeman, H.C. and Idler, D.R. (1971). Binding affinities of blood proteins for sex hormones and corticosteroids in fish. Steroids 17, 233– 250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Haussler, M.R. and Norman, A.W. (1967). The subcellular distribution of physiological doses of vitamin D3. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 118, 145–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hayward, M.A., Mitchell, T.A. and Shapiro, D.J. (1980). Induction of estrogen receptor and reversal of the nuclear/cytoplasmic receptor ratio during vitellogenin synthesis and withdrawal in Xenopus laevis. J. Biol. Chem. 255, 11308–11312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hayward, M.A. and Shapiro, D.J. (1981). A middle-affinity estrogenspecific binding protein in livers of vitellogenic and nonvitellogenic Xenopus laevis. Devel. Biol. 88, 333–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ho, S.M. and Callard, I.P. (1984). High affinity binding of [3H]R5020 and PHjprogesterone by putative progesterone receptors in cytosol and nuclear extract of turtle oviduct. Endocrinology 114, 70–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ho, S.M., Tsang, P and Callard, I.P. (1980). Some properties of a steroid-binding protein in the plasma of an ovoviviparous dogfish, Squalus acanthias, at different stages of the life cycle. Biol. Reprod. 23, 281–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Horgen, P.A. (1977). Cytosol-hormone stimulation of transcription in the aquatic fungus, Achyla ambisexualis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 75, 1022–1028.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Idler, D.R. and Freeman, H.C. (1968). Binding of testosterone 10α-hydroxycorticosterone and Cortisol by plasma proteins of fish. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 11, 366–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Idler, D.R. and Freeman, H.C. (1979). Sex hormone binding proteins I. Binding of steroids by serum of elasmobranchs (Raja radiata). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 13, 83–91.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Jenkins, N., Joss, J.P., and Dodd, J.M. (1980). Biochemical and autoradiographic studies on the oestradiol-concentrating cells in the diencephalon and pituitary gland of the female dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula L.). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 40, 211–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Jensen, E.V., Greene, G.L., Class, L.E., DeSombre, E. and Nadji, M. (1982). Receptors reconsidered: A 20 year perspective. Rec. Prog. Horm. Res. 38, 1–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 51a.
    Kelly, M.I., Kuhnt, U. and Wuttke, W. (1980). Hyperpolarization of hypothalamic parvocellular neurons by 17β-estradiol and their identification through intercellular staining with Procion yellow. Expt. Brain Res. 40, 440–447.Google Scholar
  53. 52.
    Kelley, D.B., and Pfaff, D.W. (1978). Generalizations from comparative studies on neuro-anatomical and endocrine mechanisms of sexual behavior. In “Biological Determinants of Sexual Behavior” (J.B. Hutchison, ed.), pp. 225–254.Google Scholar
  54. 53.
    Kim, Y.S., Stumpf, W.E. and Sar, M. (1978). Topography of estrogen target cells in the forebrain of goldfish, Carassius auratus. J. Comp. Neur. 182, 611–620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 54.
    Kim, Y.S., Stumpf, W.E. and Sar, M. (1981). Anatomical distribution of estrogen target neurons in turtle brain. Brain Res. 230 (1-2), 195–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 55.
    King, W.J., and Green, G.L. (1984). Monoclonal antibodies localize oestrogen receptor in the nuclei of target cells. Nature (London) 307, 747–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 56.
    Kleis-San Francisco, S.M. and Callard, I.P. (1986). Identification of a putative progesterone receptor in the oviduct of a viviparous water-snake, Nerodia. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol, (in press).Google Scholar
  58. 57.
    Kleis-San Francisco, S.M. and Callard, I.P. (1986). Progesterone receptors in the oviduct of a viviparous snake (Nerodia); Correlations with ovarian function and plasma steroid levels. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (in press).Google Scholar
  59. 58.
    Koch, B., Lutz, B., Briaud, B. and Mialhe, C. (1976). Heterogeneity of pituitary glucocorticoid binding: evidence for a transcortin-like compound. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 444, 497–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 59.
    Kon, O.L., Webster, R.A. and Spelsberg, T.C. (1980). Isolation and characterization of the estrogen receptor in hen oviduct: Evidence for two molecular species. Endocrinology 107, 1182–1191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 60.
    Lazier, C.B., Lonergan, K. and Mommsen, T.P. (1985). Hepatic estrogen receptors and plasma estrogen-binding activity in the Atlantic salmon. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 57, 234–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 61.
    Le Menn, F., Rochefort, H., and Garcia, M. (1980). Effect of androgen mediated by the estrogen receptor of fish liver: vitellogenin accumulation. Steroids 35, 315–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    Leung, K. and Munck, A. (1975). Peripheral actions of glucocorticoids. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 37, 245–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    Lyttle, C.R., Medloch, K.L. and Sheehan, D.M. (1984). Eosinophils as the source of uterine nuclear type II estrogen binding sites. J. Biol. Chem. 259, 2697–2700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 64.
    Mak, P. (1984). Estrogen receptors in the brain-testicular axis of some non-mammalian species. Ph.D. Dissertation, Boston University.Google Scholar
  66. 65.
    Mak, P. and Callard, G.V. (1985). Characterization of estrogen receptors in hamster brain. J. Steroid Biochem. 22, 355–361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    Mak, P., Callard, I.P. and Callard, G.V. (1983). Characterization of an estrogen receptor in the testis of the urodele amphibian Necturus maculosus. Biol. Reprod. 28,261–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Mak, P., Ho, S.-M. and Callard, I.P. (1982). Estrogen receptors in the turtle brain. Brain Res. 231, 63–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Mak, P., Ho, S-M., and Callard, I.P. (1983). Characterization of an estrogen receptor in the turtle testis. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 52, 182–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 69.
    Markaverich, B.M., Roberts, R.R., Alejandro, M.A. and Clark, J.H. (1985). Type II estrogen binding sites in the rat uterus are not of eosinophil origin. Proc. Endocrine Soc. 67th Ann. Mtg., Abs. #334, p. 84.Google Scholar
  71. 70.
    Martin, B. (1975). Steroid-protein interaction in non-mammalian vertebrates. I. Elasmobranch steroid-binding protein (ESBP) in dogfish serum (Scyliorhinus canicula). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 25, 42–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    Martin, B. (1980). Steroid-protein interactions in non-mammalian vertebrates: Distribution, origin, regulation, and physiological significance of plasma steroid binding proteins. In “Steroids and their Mechanisms of Action in Nonmammalian Vertebrates” (G. Delrio and J. Bracket, eds.), pp. 63–83. Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  73. 72.
    Martin, B. and Ozon, R. (1975). Steroid protein interactions in nonmammalian vertebrates. II. Steroid binding protein in the serum of amphibians: a physiological approach. Biol. Reprod. 13, 371–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    Martin, B. and Xavier, F. (1981). High-affinity binding of progesterone, estradiol-17β and testosterone by plasma proteins of the reptile Lacerta vivipara, J. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 43, 299–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 74.
    May, F.E.B. and Knowland, J. (1981). Oestrogen receptor levels and vitellogenin synthesis during development of Xenopus laevis. Nature 292, 853–855.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 75.
    May, F.E.B., Westley, B.R. and Knowland, J. (1981). Vitellogenin synthesis and characterisation of the liver estrogen receptor in the neotenous salamander Ambystoma mexicanum. Devel. Biol. 82, 350–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    McEwen, B.S. (1978). Sexual maturation and differentiation: the value of the gonadal steroids. In “Maturation of the Nervous System” (M.A. Corner et al., eds.), pp. 291–307. Elsevier, Amsterdam.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    Mester, J. and E.-E. Baulieu. (1972). Nuclear estrogen receptor of chick liver. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 261, 236–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    Moger, W.H. (1980). Direct effects of estrogens on the endocrine function of the mammalian testis. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 58, 1011–1022.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 79.
    Moore, F.L., Spielvogel, S.P., Zoeller, R.I. and Wingfield, J. (1983). Testosterone-binding protein in a seasonally breeding amphibian. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 49, 15–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 80.
    Murphy, B.E.P. (1968). Binding of testosterone and estradiol in plasma. Can. J. Biochem. 46, 299–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Nakhla, A.M., Matshu, J.P., Janne, O.A., and Bardin, C.W. (1984). Estrogen and androgen receptors in Sertoli, Leydig, myoid and epithelial cells: effects of time in culture and cell density. Endocrinology 115, 121–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 82.
    Norman, A.W., Roth, J. and Orci, L. (1982). The vitamin D endocrine system: Steroid metabolism, hormone receptors, and biological response (calcium, binding proteins). Endocr. Rev. 3 (4), 331– 366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 83.
    Pardridge, W.M. (1981). Transport of protein-bound hormones into tissues in vivo. Endocr. Rev. 2, 103–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 84.
    Parikh, I., Anderson, W.L., and Neame, P. (1980). Identification of high affinity estrogen binding sites in calf uterine microsomal membranes. J. Biol. Chem. 255, 10266–10270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 85.
    Pasmanik, M. and Callard, G.V. (1985). Identification and characterization of an androgen receptor in the brain of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Amer. Zool. 25, 115A. (Abstract)Google Scholar
  87. 86.
    Pasmanik, M. and Callard, G.V. (1986). Identification of sex hormine binding protein in goldfish serum. Biol. Reprod. (in press).Google Scholar
  88. 87.
    Pearlman, W.H., Crepy, O. and Murphy, M. (1967). Testosterone binding levels in the serum of women during the normal mestrual cycle, pregnancy and post-partum period. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 27, 1012– 1018.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 88.
    Pudney, J. and Callard, G.V. (1984). Identification of Leydig-like cells in the testis of the dogfish Squalus acanthias. Anat. Rec. 209, 323–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 89.
    Pudney, J., Canick, J.A., Mak, P. and Callard, G.V. (1983). The differentiation of Leydig cells, steroidogenesis, and the spermato- genetic wave in the testis of Necturus maculosus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 50, 43–66..PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 90.
    Richards, J.S. (1979). Hormonal control of ovarian follicular development: A 1978 perspective. Rec. Prog. Horm. Res. 35, 343– 373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    Riehl, R.M., Toft, D.O., Meyer, M.D., Carlson, G.L. and McManus, T. C. (1984). Detection of a pheromone-binding protein in the aquatic fungus Achlya ambisexualis. Exp. Cell Res. 153, 544–549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 92.
    Riley, D. and Callard, I.P. (1984). Estrogen binding proteins in the liver of the viviparous snake, Nerodia. Amer. Zool. 24, 117A. (Abstract)Google Scholar
  94. 93.
    Riley, D., McPherson, R., and Callard, I.P. (1983). Hepatic estrogen receptor in the turtle Chrysemys picta. Partial characterization, seasonal changes and pituitary dependence. J. Steroid Biochem. (in press).Google Scholar
  95. 93a.
    Riley, D., Kleis-San Francisco, S.M. and Callard, I.P. (1986). A steroid hormone binding protein in the plasma of the viviparous snake, Nerodia. Biol. Reprod. 34, Suppl. 1, p. 71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 94.
    Ruh, M.F., Sing, P.K., Mak, P. and Callard, G.V. (1986). Tissue and species specificity unmasked nuclear acceptor sites for the estrogen receptor of Squalus testes. Endocrinology, 118, 811–818.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 95.
    Ruh, M.F., and Toft, D.O. (1984). Characterization of unusual sex steroid binding component from chicken oviduct. J. Steroid Biochem. 21, 1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 96.
    Salhanick, A.R. and Callard, I.P. (1979). Sex steroid binding proteins in non-mammalian vertebrates. In “Steroid Hormone Receptor Systems” (W. W. Leavitt and J.H. Clark, eds), pp. 441–459. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  99. 97.
    Salhanick, A.R. and Callard, I.P. (1980). A sex-steroid binding protein in the plasma of fresh-water turtle, Chrysemys picta. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 42, 163–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 98.
    Salhanick, A.R., Vito, C.C., Fox, T.O. and Callard, I.P. (1979). Estrogen-binding proteins in the oviduct of the turtle, Chrysemys picta; evidence for a receptor species. Endocrinology 105, 1388– 1395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 99.
    Sandor, T. and A.Z. Mehdi. (1979). Steroids and evolution. In “Hormones and Evolution,” Vol. I (E.J.W. Barrington, ed.), pp. 1–72. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  102. 100.
    Schlatterer, B. and Roth, U. (1984). Cell fractionation of lamb uterus in non-aqueous media and nuclear compartmentalization of the oestrogen receptor. Vol. Vet. Med. A, 31, 431–436.Google Scholar
  103. 100a.
    Schimke, R.T., McKnight, G.S., Shapiro, D.J., Sullivan, D., and Palacios, R. (1975). Hormonal regulation of ovalbumin synthesis in the chick oviduct. Rec. Progr. Horm. Res. 31, 175–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 101.
    Seal, U.S. and Doe, R.P. (1965). Vertebrate distribution of corticosteroid-binding globulin and some endocrine effects on concentrations. Steroids, 5, 827–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 102.
    Sernia, C. (1978). Steroid binding proteins of the Echidna Tachyglossus aculeatus, with comparative data for some marsupials and reptiles. Aust. Zool. 20, 87–98.Google Scholar
  106. 103.
    Siiteri, P.K., Murai, J.T., Hammond, G.L., Nisker, J.A., Raymore, W.J., and Kuhn, R.W. (1982). The serum transport of steroid hormones. Rec. Prog. Horm. Res. 38, 457–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 104.
    Sloop, T.C., Sherman, B. and Lucier, G.W. (1984). Characterization of cytosolic steroid-binding protein in the liver of the winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 55, 157–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 105.
    Smirnova, O.V., Smirnov, A.N., Shoshina, S.V. and Rozen, V.B. (1978). Some properties of sex hormone-binding protein from blood serum of the frog Xenopus laevis and the detection of estradiol-binding component differing from sex hormone-binding protein in frog liver cytosol. Biokhimiya 43 (8), 1444–1451.Google Scholar
  109. 106.
    Smith, J.S., and Thomas, P. (1984). Cytosolic estrogen receptors in the liver of spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus. Amer. Zool. 24, 116A. (Abstract)Google Scholar
  110. 107.
    Sone, S. and Ishikawa, K. (1982). Progesterone-binding components in cytosol fraction from mature female bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) oviduct. Reports of Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University 16, 81–91.Google Scholar
  111. 108.
    Spelsberg, T.C., Littlefield, B.A., Seelke, R., Martin-Dani, G., Toyoda, H., Boyde-Leinen, P., Thrall, C, and Kon, 0. L. (1983). Role of specific chromosomal receptors. Rec. Prog. Horm. Res. 39, 463–513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 109.
    Sutherland, R.B. and Horgen, P.A. (1977). Effects of steroid sex hormone, antheridiol, on the initiation of RNA synthesis in the simple eukaryote, Achlya ambisexualis. J. Biol. Chem. 252, 8812– 8820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 110.
    Szego, CM. (1984). Mechanisms of hormone actions: Parallels in receptor-mediated signal propagation for steroid and peptide effectors. Life Sciences 35, 2383–2396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 111.
    Thieulant, M.L., Samperez, S. and Jowan, P. (1981). Evidence for 5α-androstan-3β,17β-diol binding to the estrogen receptor in the cytosol from male rat pituitary. Endocrinology 108, 1552–1560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 112.
    Tokarz, R.R., Crews, D. and McEwen, B.S. (1981). Estrogen-sensitive progestin binding sites in the brain of the lizard, Anolis carolinensis. Brain Res. 220, 95–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 113.
    Tsai, Y.H., Sanborn, B.M., Steinberger, A. and Steinberger, E. (1977). The interaction of testicular androgen receptor complex with rat germ cell and Sertoli cell chromatin. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 75, 366–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 114.
    Turner, R.T., Dickhoff, W.D. and Gorbman, A. (1981). Estrogen binding to hepatic nuclei of Pacific hagfish, Eptatretus stouti. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 45, 26–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 115.
    Walters, M. (1985). Steroid hormone receptors and the nucleus. Endocr. Rev. 6, 512–543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 116.
    Watanabe, M., Phillips, K. and Chen, T. (1973). Steroid-receptor in Pseudomonas testosteroni released by osmotic shock. J. Steroid. Biochem. 4, 613–621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 117.
    Watanabe, M. and Watanabe, H. (1974). Periplasmic steroid binding proteins and steroid transforming enzymes of Pseudomonas testeroni. J. Steroid Biochem. 5, 439–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 118.
    Welshons, W.V., Lieberman, M.E. and Gorski, J. (1984). Nuclear localization of unoccupied oestrogen receptors. Nature (London) 307, 745–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 119.
    Westley, B. and Knowland. (1978). An estrogen receptor from Xenopus laevis possibly connected with vitellogenin synthesis. Cell 15, 367–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 120.
    Westphal, V. (1971). “Steroid Protein Interactions.” (F. Gros, ed.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  124. 121.
    Williams, D. and Gorski, J. (1972). Kinetic and equilibrium analysis of estradiol in uterus: A model of binding site distribution in uterine cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 69, 3464–3468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 122.
    Wingfield, J.C. (1980). Sex steroid-binding proteins in vertebrate blood. In “Hormones, Adaptation and Evolution” (S. Ishii, T. Hirano and M. Wada, eds.), pp. 135–144. Springer-Verlag, Berlin and New York.Google Scholar
  126. 123.
    Wright, W. S. and Frankel, A.E. (1980). An androgen receptor in the nuclei of late spermatids in testes of male rats. Endocrinology 107, 314–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 124.
    Xavier, F. (1982). Progesterone in the viviparous lizard Lacerta vivipara; Ovarian biosynthesis, plasma levels, and binding to transcortin-type protein during the sexual cycle. Herpetologica 38, 62–70.Google Scholar
  128. 125.
    Yamada, M., and Miyaji, H. (1982). Binding of sex hormones by male rat liver microsomes. J. Steroid Biochem. 16, 437–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 126.
    Yamamoto, K.R., and Alberts, B. (1976). Steroid receptors: Elements for modulation of eukaryotic transcription. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 45, 722–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 127.
    Yu, J.Y.-L., Dickhoff, W.D., Swanson, P. and Gorbman, A. (1981). Vitellogenesis and its hormonal regulation in the Pacific hagfish Eptatretus stouti L. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 43, 492–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 128.
    Yund, M.A., King, D.S. and Fristrom, J.W. (1978). Ecdysteroid receptors in imaginal discs of Drosophila melanogaster. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 75, 6039–6043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian P. Callard
    • 1
  • Gloria V. Callard
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyBoston UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations