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Calcification of Polymeric Biomaterials in Long-Term Cardiovascular Uses

  • Stephen D. Bruck
Chapter

Abstract

The calcification of polymeric materials in long-term medical implants such as cardiac assist devices, mechanical artificial hearts, and xenograft bioprostheses is a complex phenomenon, and apparently involves biochemical, physiological, physico-chemical, and species-related parameters. Biochemical explanation implicate the Ca2+ binding amino acid, gamma-carboxyglutamic acid, and other vitamin K-dependent plasma proteins and blood clotting factors, such as atherocalcin, osteocalcin, protein C, prothrombin (factor II), and factors IX and X. Physiological parameters of calcium homeostasis depend on the intricate interactions between calcitonin, parathorme, and vitamin D. These regulate the calcium and phosphorous (hydroxyapatite) in the bone and respond rapidly to various stimuli in readjusting the extracellular calcium levels from the bone. In the realm of physico-chemical parameters of polymeric biomaterials, I have proposed elsewhere that the propensity of polymers to sorption and permeation (in addition to surface phenomena of adsorption) of plasma components and drugs may be important in the calcification process of prostheses. This prediction was validated by our recent experimental findings.

Keywords

Artificial Heart Blood Clotting Factor Binding Amino Acid Recent Experimental Finding Tamic Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen D. Bruck
    • 1
  1. 1.Biomedical Technology Risk Assessment GroupStephen D. Bruck Associates, Inc.BethesdaUSA

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