Ultrasound pp 185-193 | Cite as

Immunological and Genetic Effects

  • A. R. Williams


The obvious importance of the immunological system in the protection from infection and the role of DNA as the store of genetic information for future generations means that both of these systems have been intensively investigated as potential “targets” for ultrasound interactions. In common with many other areas of biological investigation the majority of the published reports are concerned with the in vitro exposure of isolated cells or even purified macromolecules. This is a reflection of the fact that it is often difficult to obtain a precise measurement of a given vital function in vivo (partly because of the difficulty of access without perturbing the function you are trying to measure and partly because of the inherent homeostatic mechanisms which operate to prevent any change). Consequently, in vitro exposure systems are favoured because they enable more sophisticated and/or quantifiable measurements to be performed.


Chromosome Aberration Sister Chromatid Exchange Popliteal Lymph Node Diagnostic Ultrasound Ultrasonic Radiation 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. R. Williams
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medical BiophysicsUniversity of Manchester Medical SchoolManchesterEngland

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