Left Ventricular Aneurysm and Infarct Expansion

  • Cees A. Visser
  • Jacques J. Koolen
  • Gerard Kan
Part of the Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine book series (DICM, volume 80)


A ventricular aneurysm was described by the English surgeon John Hunter [1] as early as 1757. The association with coronary artery disease, however, was not made until the early 20th century. The major cause in modern society is acute myocardial infarction [2]. Other, but far less frequent, causes are bacterial endocarditis, cardiac trauma, sarcoidosis, syphilitic gumma, and congenital anomaly [3, 4]. The incidence of aneurysm formation in survivors of a transmural infarction has been reported to vary between 10% and 38% [5, 6]. This wide range can partly be explained by the number of definitions employed [7].


Left Ventricle Aneurysm Formation Interventricular Septum Coronary Care Unit Ventricular Aneurysm 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Hunter J. An account of the dissection of morbid bodies Coll Surg 1757;32:30 [original manuscript in the library].Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schlichter J, Hellerstein HK, Katz LM. Aneurysm of the heart: a correlative study of 102 proved cases. Medicine (Baltimore) 1954;33:43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Saksena FB, Kramer ME, Towne WD, Khan M, Gamble R, Cruz JB, Gill S. Infective aneurysm of the left ventricle: angiographic and electrocardio-graphic features. Am Heart J 1978;96:384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Symbas PN, Baldwin BJ, Schlant RC, Hurst JW. Unusual complications of bacterial endocarditis. Br Heart J 1971;33:664.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Appelbaum E, Nicolson GHB. Occlusive disease of the coronary arteries: an analysis of the pathological anatomy in 168 cases with electrocardiographic correlation in 36 of them. Am Heart J 1935;10:662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Johnson JB, Lam ACH, Wright JS. Ventricular aneurysm after infarction: pathological and surgical features. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1969;58:14.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cabin HS, Roberts WC. Left ventricular aneurysm, intraaneurysmal thrombus and systemic embolus in coronary heart disease. Chest 1980;77:586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chesler E. Aneurysms of the left ventricle. Cardiovasc Clin 1972;4:197.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Klein MD, Herman MV, Gorlin R. A hemodynamic study of left ventricular aneurysm. Circulation 1967;35:614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Roberts WC, Morrow AG. Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle: an unusual sequel. Am J Med 1967;43:639.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cooley DA, Hallman GL, Henly WS. Left ventricular aneurysm due to myocardial infarction. Arch Surg 1964;88:114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Phares WS, Edwards JE, Burchell H. Cardiac aneurysms: clinicopathologic studies. May Clin Proc 1954;28:264.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Popp RL, Wolfe SB, Hirata T, Feigenbaum H. Estimation of right and left ventricular size by ultrasound: a study of the echoes from the interventricular septum. Am J Cardiol 1969;24:523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Popp RL, Harrison DC. Ultrasonic cardiac echocardiography for determining stroke volume and valvular regurgitation. Circulation 1970;41:493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Feigenbaum H. Echocardiographic examination of the left ventricle. Circulation 1975;51:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jacobs JJ, Feigenbaum H, Corya BC, Haine CL, Black MJ, Chang S. Echocardiographic detection of left ventricular asynergy. Circulation 1972;46:42.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Corya BC, Feigenbaum H, Rasmussen S, Black MJ. Echocardiographic examination of the anterior left ventricular wall in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 1974;33:132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kraemer R, Kerber RE, Abboud FM. Ventricular aneurysm: use of echocardiography. J Clin Ultra sound 1973;1:60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Peterson JL, Johnston W, Hessel EA, et al. Echocardiographic recognition of left ventricular aneurysm. Am Heart J 1972;83:244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Weyman AE, Peskoe SM, Williams ES, Dillon J, Feigenbaum H. Detection of left ventricular aneurysms by cross-sectional echocardiography. Circulation 1976;54:936.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Visser CA, Kan G, David GK, Lie KI, Durrer D. Echocardiographic-cineangiographic correlation in detecting left ventricular aneurysm: a prospective study of 433 patients. Am J Cardiol 1982;50:337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Visser CA, Kan G, Meltzer RS, Koolen JJ, Dunning AJ. Incidence, timing and prognostic value of left ventricular aneurysm formation after myocardial infarction: a prospective, serial echocardiographic study of 158 patients. Am J Cardiol 1980;57:729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Eaton LW, Weiss JL, Bulkley BH, Garrison JB, Weisfeldt ML. Regional cardiac dilatation after acute myocardial infarction: recognition by two-dimensional echocardiography. N Engl J Med 1979;300:57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Meisztish JL, Berger HJ, Klankey M, Errico D, Levy W, Zaret BL. Functional left ventricular aneurysm formation after acute anterior transmural infarction. N Engl J Med 1984;34:1001.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hutchins GM, Bulkley BH. Infarct expansion versus extension: two different complications of acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1978;41:1127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hackman JS, Bulkley BH. Pathogenesis of left ventricular aneurysm: an experimental study in the rat model. Am J Cardiol 1982;50:83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schuster EH, Bulkley BH. Expansion of transmural myocardial infarction: a pathophysiologic factor in cardiac rupture. Circulation 1979;60:1532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Erlebacher JA, Weiss JL, Eaton LW, Kallman C, Weisfeldt ML, Bulkley BH. Late effects of acute infarct dilation on heart size: a two-dimensional echocardiographic study. Am J Cardiol 1982;49:1120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Weisman HF, Bush DE, Mannisi JA, Bulkley BH. Global cardiac remodeling after acute myocardial infarction: a study in the rat model. J Am Coll Cardiol 1985;5:1355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Loop FD, Cosgrove DM. Results of ventricular aneurysmectomy. Am J Surg 1981;141:684.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Otterstad JE, Christensen O, Levorstad K, Nitter-Hange S. Long-term results after left ventricular aneurysmectomy. Br Heart J 1981;45:427.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cooley DA, Hallman GL. Surgical treatment of left ventricular aneurysm: experience with excision of post-infarction lesions. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 1968;11:222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cohen M, Packer M, Gorlin R. Indications for left ventricular aneurysmectomy. Circulation 1983;67:717.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Swan HJC, Magnussen P, Buchbinder N, Metloff JM, Gray RJ. Aneurysms of the cardiac ventricle. West J Med 1976;129:26.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kapelanski DP, Al-Sadir J, Lamberti JJ, Anagnostopoulos CE. Ventriculographic features predictive of surgical outcome for left ventricular aneurysm. Circulation 1978;58:1167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chia-Sen Lee D, Johnson RA, Boucher CA, Wexter LF, McEnamy MT. Angiographic predictors of survival following left ventricular aneurysmectomy. Circulation 1977;56(supp II):II–128.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Watson LE, Dickhaus DW, Martin DH. Left ventricular aneurysm: preoperative haemodynamics, chamber volume, and results of aneurysmectomy. Circulation 1975;52:868.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tesler UF, Lemole GM. The surgical treatment of postinfarction left ventricle aneurysm. Eur J Cardiol 1975;214:407.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dillon JC, Feigenbaum H, Weyman AE, Corya B, Peskoe S, Chung S. M-mode echocardiography in the evaluation of patients for aneurysmectomy. Circulation 1976;53:657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Visser CA, Kan G, Meltzer RS, Moulijn AC, David GK, Dunning AJ. Assessment of left ventricular aneurysm resectability by two-dimensional echocardiography. Am J Cardiol 1985;56:857.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Visser CA, Kan G, Dunning AJ. A simple device to obtain reproducible echocardiographic apical cross-sections. Am J Cardiol 1985;56:206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Barrett MJ, Charugi YC, Corday E. Ventricular aneurysm: cross-sectional echocardiographic approach. Am J Cardiol 1980;46:1133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ryan T, Petrovic O, Armstrong WF, Dillon JC, Feigenbaum H. Quantitative two-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of patients undergoing left ventricular aneurysmectomy. Am Heart J 1986:14:714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Roelandt J, Van den Brand M, Vletter WG, Nauta J, Hugenholtz PG. Echocardiographic diagnosis of a peudoaneurysm of the left ventricle. Circulation 1975;52:466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mills PG, Rose JD, Brodie BC, Delaney DC, Craige E. Echocardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm. Chest 1977;72:365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Katz RJ, Simpson A, Di Bianco R, Fletcher RD, Bates HR, Sauerbrun BJC. Noninvasive diagnosis of left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm: role of two-dimensional echocardiography and radionuclide gated pool imaging. Am J Cardiol 1979;44:372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gateword RP, Nauta NC. Differentiation of left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm with two-dimensional echocardiography. Am J Cardiol 1980;46:869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Catherwood E, Mintz GS, Kotler MA, Parry WR, Segal BL. Two-dimensional echocardiographic recognition of left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm. Circulation 1980;62:294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Vlodawar Z, Coe JL, Edwards JE. True and false ventricular aneurysms: propensity of the latter to rupture. Circulation 1975;51:567.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers. Boston/Dordrecht/Lancaster 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cees A. Visser
  • Jacques J. Koolen
  • Gerard Kan

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations