Mammary Epithelial Antigens as a Breakthrough in Breast Cancer Research: Now Where to?

  • Roberto L. Ceriani
Part of the Developments in Oncology book series (DION, volume 56)

Abstract

The present paper will cover research related to breast epithelial antigens, which have been chosen to be defined as those antigens specific or at least characteristic to breast epithelia, for which antibodies had been generated as a result of the use of breast cells and their products for immunization. However, excluded from this paper will be studies dealing with non-breast-characteristic components such as receptors for hormones and other factors, cytokeratins, and oncogenes. An effort has been made to identify leading research efforts in a field that has increased prodigiously in size and scope in the last ten years, provide some current and pertinent experimental examples and identify areas requiring further research involvement.

Keywords

Toxicity Lymphoma Estrogen Polysaccharide Immobilization 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Feldman, M.K. and Ceriani, R.L. Acomparative immunologic and electrophoretic analysis of rat and mouse caseins. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 37:421–427, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Monaco, M.F., Bonzert, D.A., Tormey, D.C., Walkes, P. and Lippman, M. Casein production by human breast cancer. Cancer Res. 37:749–751, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lee, A.K., Rosen, P.P., DeLellis, R.A., Saigo, P., Bagin, R. and Wolfe, H.J. Tumor marker expression in breast carcinomas and relationship to prognosis. Am. J. Clin. Path. 84:687–696, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ceriani, R.L. and Blank, E.W. Response to prolactin and ovarian steroids of normal mammary epithelial cell cultures. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 8:95–103, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shulman, S. Tissue Specificity and Autoimmunity, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1974.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ceriani, R.L., Peterson, J.A. and Abraham, S. Immunologic methods for the identification of cell types. 1. Expression of normal mouse mammary epithelial (MME) cell antigens in mammary neoplasia. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 61:747–751, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anderson, M. and Cawston, T.E. The milk fat globule membrane. J. Dairy Sci. 42:459–487, 1975.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ceriani, R.L., Thompson, K.E., Peterson, J.A. and Abraham, S. Surface differentiation antigens of human mammary epithelial cells carried on the human milk fat globule. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 74:582–586, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Coombs, R.C., Dearnaley, D.P., Ellison, M.L. and Neville, A.M. Markers in breast and lung cancer. Ann. Clin. Biochem. 19:263–268, 1982.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wilbanks, T., Peterson, J.A., Miller, S., Kaufman, L., Ortendahl, D. and Ceriani, R.L. Localization of mammary tumors in vivo with 131I-labeled Fab fragments of antibodies against mouse mammary epithelial (MME) antigens. Cancer 48:1768–1775, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ceriani, R.L., Orthendahl, D., Sasaki, M., Kaufman, L., Miller, S., Wara, W. and Peterson, J.A. Use of mammary epithelial antigens (HME-Ags) in breast cancer diagnosis. In: Cancer Detection and Prevention 1981 (ed. H.E. Nieburgs), Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 4:603–609, 1981.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sasaki, M., Peterson, J.A., Wara, W. and Ceriani, R.L. Human mammary epithelial antigens (HME-Ags) in the circulation of nude mice implanted with breast and non-breast tumors. Cancer 48:2204–2210, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ceriani, R.L., Sasaki, J., Sussman, H., Wara, W.A., and Blank, E.W. Circulating human mammary epithelial antigens in breast cancer. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 79:5420–5424, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Peterson, J.A., Bartholomew, J.S., Stampfer, M. and Ceriani, R.L. Analysis of expression of human mammary epithelial antigens in normal and malignant breast cells at the single cell level by flow cytofluorimetry. Exp. Cell Biol. 49:1–14, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Taylor-Papadimitriou, J., Peterson, J.A., Arklie J., Burchell, J., Ceriani, R.L., and Bodmer, W.F. Monoclonal antibodies to epithelium-specific components of the human milk fat globule membrane: Production and reaction with cells in culture. Int. J. Cancer 28:17–21, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ceriani, R.L., Peterson, J.A. and Blank, E.W. Characterization of cell surface antigens of human mammary epithelial cells with monoclonal antibodies prepared against human milk fat globule. Somat. Cell Genet. 9:415–427, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Foster, CS., Edwards, P.A., Dinsdale, E.A. and Neville, A.M. Monoclonal antibodies to the human mammary and extra mammary tissues. Virchows Arch (Pathol. Anat.) 394:279–293. 1982.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nuti, M., Teramoto, Y.A., Mariani-Costantini, R., Hand, P.H., Colcher, D., and Schlom, J. A monoclonal antibody (B72.3) defines patients of distribution of a novel tumor-associated antigen in human mammary carcinoma cell populations. Int. J. Cancer 29:539–545, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Papsidero, L.D., Croghan, G.A., O”Connell, M.J., Valenzuela, L.A., Nemoto, T. and Chu, T.M. Monoclonal antibodies (F36/22 and M7/105) to human breast carcinoma. Cancer Res. 43:1741–1747, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hilkens, J., Buijs, F., Hilgers, J., Hageman, P., Calafat, J., Sonnenberg, A. and van der Valk, M. Monoclonal antibodies against human milk-fat globule membranes detecting differentiation antigens of the mammary gland and its tumors. Int. J. Cancer 34:197–206, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Colcher, D., Hand, P.H., Nuti, M. and Schlom, J. A Spectrum of monoclonal antibodies reactive with human mammary tumor cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78:3199–3203, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schlom, J., Wunderlich, D. and Teramoto, Y.A. Generation of human monoclonal antibodies reactive with human mammary carcinoma cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77:6841–6845, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Iman, A., Drashella, M.M., Taylor, CR. and Tokes, Z.A. Generation and immunohistological characterization of human monoclonal antibodies to mammary carcinoma cells. Cancer Res. 45:263–271. 1985.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Menard, S., Tagliabue, E., Canevari, S., Fossati, G. and Colnaghi, MI. Generation of monoclonal antibodies reacting with normal and cancer cells of human breast. Cancer Res. 43:1295–300, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pawlak, O. and Smith S. Evaluation of thioesterase II as a serum marker for rat mammary cancer. Cancer Res. 46:4712–4719, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Greene, G.L., Nolan C, Engler, J.P. and Jensen, E.V. Monoclonal antibodies to human estrogen receptor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77:5115–5119, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Greene, G.L. and Press, M.F. Immunochemical evaluation of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor in breast cancer. In: Immunological Approaches the Oiagnosis and Therapy of Breast Cancer, (ed. R.L. Ceriani) Plenum Press, New York, 1987, pp. 119–135.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Colcher, D., Zalutsky, M., Kaplan, W., Kufe, O., Austin, F. and Schlom, J. Radiolocalization of human breast tumors in athymic mice by a monoclonal antibody. Cancer Res. 43:736–742, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Epenetos, A.A., Britton, K.E., Mathers, S., Shepherd, J., Granowska, M., Taylor-Papadimitriou, J., Nimmon, CC, Darbin, H., Hawkins, L.R., Malpas, J.S. and Bodmer, W.F. Targeting of iodine-123-labelled tumor-associated monoclonal antibodies to ovarian, breast, and gastrointestinal tumors. Lancet ii:999–1003, 1982.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rainsbury, R.M., Ott, R.J., Westwood, J.H., Kalirai, T.S., Coombes, R.C., McCready, V.R., Neville, A.M. and Gazet, J.C. Location of metastatic breast carcinoma by a monoclonal antibody chelate labelled with Indium-Ill. Lancet 2:934–938, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Thompson, C.H., Lichtenstein, M., Stacker, S.A., Leyden, M.J., Salehi, N., Andrews, J.T. and McKenzie, I.F. Immunoscintigraphy for detection of lymph node metastases from breast cancer. Lancet 2:1245–1247, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hilkens, B. Kroezen, V., Bonfrer, J.M.G., De Jong-Bakker, M. and Bruning, P.F. MAM-6 antigen, a new serum marker for breast cancer monitoring. Cancer Res. 46:2582–2587, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hayes, D.F., Sekine, H., Ohno, T., Abe, M., Keefe, K. and Kufe, D.W. Use of murine monoclonal antibody for detection of circulating plasma DF3 antigen levels in breast cancer patients. J. Clin. Invest. 75:1671–1678, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Burchell, J., Wang, D. and Taylor-Papadimitriou, J. Detection of the tumour-associated antigens recognized by the monoclonal antibodies HMFG-1 and 2 in serum from patients with breast cancer. Int. J. Cancer 34:763–768, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ceriani, R.L., Rosenbaum, E.H., Chandler, M., Trujillo, T.T., Myers, B. and Sakada, M. Role of circulating human mammary epithelial antigens (HME-Ags) as serum markers for breast cancer. In: Tumor Markers and Their Significance in the Management of Breast Cancer, (ed. C. Ip), A.R. Liss, Inc., 1986, pp. 3–19.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Salinas, F.A., Wee, K.H. and Ceriani, R.L. Significance of breast carcinoma-associated antigens as a monitor of tumor burden: Characterization by monoclonal antibodies. Cancer Res. 47:907–913, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ceriani, R.L., Hill, D.L., Osvaldo, L., Kandell, C. and Blank, E.W. Immunohistochemical studies in breast cancer using monoclonal antibodies against breast epithelial cell components and with lectins. In: Immunohistochemistry in Tumor Diagnosis, (ed. J. Russo) Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston, 1985, pp. 233–263.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hand, P.H., Nuti, M., Colcher, D. and Schlom, O. Definition of antigenic heterogeneity and modulation among mammary carcinoma-cell populations using monoclonal antibodies to tumor-associated antigens. Cancer Res. 43:728–735, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Peterson, J.A., Ceriani, R.L., Blank, E.W. and Osvaldo, L. Comparison of rates of phenotypic variability in surface antigen expression in normal and cancerous human breast epithelial cells. Cancer Res. 4:4291–4296, 1983.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ceriani, R.L., Peterson, O.A. and Blank, E.W. Variability in surface antigen expression of human breast epithelial cells cultured from normal breast, normal breast peripheral to breast carcinoma, and breast carcinomas. Cancer Res. 44:3033–3039, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wilkinson, M.J.S., Howell, A., Harris, M., Taylor-Papadimitriou, J., Swindell, R. and Sellwood, R.A. The prognostic significance of two epithelial membrane antigens expressed by human mammary carcinomas. Int. J. Cancer 33:299–304, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Berry, N., Jones, D.B., Smallwood, J. Taylor, I., Kirkham, N. and Taylor-Papadimitriou, J. The prognostic value of the monoclonal antibodies HMFG-1 and HMFG-2 in breast cancer. Br. J. Cancer 51:179–186, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hilgers, J. and Rose, C. Prognostic value of surface antigens in primary breast carcinomas, detected by monoclonal antibodies. Cancer Res. 45:1424–1427, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ellis, I.O., Hinton, C.P., Macnay, J., Robins, R.A., Elstron, W., Owainati, A., Blarney, R.W., Baldwin, R.W. and Ferry, B. Immunocytochemical staining of breast carcinoma with the monoclonal antibody NCRC 11: A new prognostic indicator. Clinical Res. 290:881–883, 1985.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Capone, P.M., Papsidero, L.D., Croghan, G.A. and Chu, T.M. Experimental tumoricidal effects of monoclonal antibody against solid breast tumors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80:7328–7332, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Papsidero, L.D., Croghan, G.A., Capone, P.M. and Johnson, E.A. Ductal carcinoma antigen: characteristics, tissue distribution and capacity to represent a target for monoclonal antibody therapy. In: Monoclonal Antibodies and Breast Cancer, (ed. R.L. Ceriani) Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston, 1985, pp. 293–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Capone, P.M., Papsidero, L.D. and Chu, T.M. Relationship between antigen density and immunotherapeutic response elicited by monoclonal antibodies against solid tumors. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 72:673–677, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sasaki, M., Peterson, J.A. and Ceriani, R.L. Monoclonal antibodies against breast epithelial cell surface antigens in breast cancer therapy. Hybridoma 2:120, 1983.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ceriani, R.L. and Blank, E.W. An experimental model for the immunological treatment of breast cancer. In: Monoclonal Antibodies and Breast Cancer, (ed. R.L. Ceriani) Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston, 1985, pp. 248–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ceriani, R.L. and Blank, E.W. Experimental immunotherapy of human breast carcinomas implanted in nude mice with a mixture of monoclonal antibodies against human milk fat globule components. Cancer Res. 47:532–540, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Coombes, R. Charles, et al.In vitro and In vivo effects of a monoclonal antibody-toxin conjugate for use in autologous bone marrow transplantation for patients with breast cancer. Cancer Res. 46:4217–4220, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bjorn, M.J., Ring, D. and Frankel, A. Evaluation of monoclonal antibodies for the development of breast cancer immunotoxins. Cancer Res. 45:1214–1221, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Monaco, M., Mack, J., Dugan, M. and Ceriani, R. An antibody-toxin conjugate directed against a human mammary cancer antigen. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 464:389–399, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Blank, E.W., Ceriani, R.L. and Hwang, K. Conjugated monoclonal antibodies in experimental immunotherapy of human breast tumors in nude mice. Int. Conf. Monoclonal Antibody Conjugates for Cancer, San Diego, March 1986.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Spitler, L.E., del Rio, M. and Khentigan, A. Therapy of patients with malignant melanoma using a monoclonal anti-melanoma antibody-ricin A chain immunotoxin. Cancer Res. 47:1717–1723, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Epenetos, A.A., Courtenay-Luck N., Hainan, K.E., et al. Antibody guided irradiation of malignant lesions. Lancet 30:1441–1443, 1984.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kalofonos, H.P. and Epenetos, A.A. Antibody guided diagnosis and therapy of patients with breast cancer. In: Immunological Approaches the Diagnosis and Therapy of Breast Cancer, (ed. R.L. Ceriani) Plenum Press, New York, 1987, pp. 245–257.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Beckford, U., Barbatis, C, Beesley, J.E., Linsell, J.C. and Chantier, S.M. Localisation of Ca and HMF62 antigens in breast tissue by immunoperoxidase, immunofluorescence, and immunoelectron microscopy. J. Clin. Pathol. 38:512–20, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Battifora, H. The use of multitumor/tissue (sausage) blocks for immunohistologic screening of monoclonal antibodies. In: Immunological Approaches the Diagnosis and Therapy of Breast Cancer, (ed. R.L. Ceriani) Plenum Press, New York, 1987, pp. 63–68.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ceriani, R.L. New immunoreagents in breast cancer diagnosis and experimental therapy; Report on the workshop on markers for differentiation and malignancy. In: Breast Cancer: Origins, Detection, and Treatment, (ed. M. Rich) Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston, 1986, pp. 291–302.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Vitetta, E.S., and VHR, T.W. Immunotoxins. Ann. Rev. Immunol. 3:197–212, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ozzello, L. Ultrastructure of human mammary carcinoma cells in vivo and in vitro. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 48:1043–1050, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hahnel, R., Woodings, T. and Vivian, A.B. Prognostic value of estrogen receptors in primary breast cancer. Cancer 44:671–675, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bonneterre, O. Homer, D., Peyrat, J.P., Vandewalle, B., Cambier, L. and Demaille, A. Estradiol and progesterone receptors in breast cancer: prognostic value after relapse. Breast Cancer Res. and Treat., 5:149–154, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lottich, S.C., Johnston, W.W., Szpak, CA., Delong, E.R., Thor, A. and Schlom, J. Tumor-associated antigen TAG-72: correlation of expression in primary and metastatic breast carcinoma lesions. Breast Cancer Res. and Treat. 6:49–56, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Abe, M. and Kufe, D. Effects of maturational agents on expression and secretion of two partially characterized high molecular weight milk-related glycoproteins in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 126:126–132, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lundy, J., Thor, A., Maenza, R., Schlom, J., Forouhar, F., Testa, M. and Kufe, D. Monoclonal antibody DF3 correlates with tumor differentiation and hormone receptor status in breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 5:269–276, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Peterson, J.A. Single cell heterogeneity in breast cancer. In: Inmunologi cal Approaches the Diagnosis and Therapy of Breast Cancer, (ed. R.L. Ceriani) Plenum Press, New York, 1987 pp. 41–53.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Neuberger, M.S., Williams, G.T. and Fox, R.O. Recombinant antibodies possessing novel effector functions. Nature 312:604–608, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Brown, B.A., Comeau, R.D., Jones, P.L., Liberatore, F.A., Neacy, W.P., Sands, H. and Gallagher, B.M. Pharmacokinetics of the monoclonal antibody B72.3 and its fragments labeled with either 125I or 111In. Cancer Res. 47:1149–1154, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Pimm, M.V. and Baldwin, R.W. Localization of an anti-tumor monoclonal antibody in human tumor xenografts: kinetic and quantitative studies with the 791T/36 antibody. In: Monoclonal Antibodies for Cancer Detection and Therapy. (eds. R.W. Baldwin, and V.S. Byers), Academic Press, New York, 1985, pp. 98–129.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Badger, C.C., Krohn, K.A., Shulman, H., Flournoy, N. and Bernstein, I.D. Experimental radioimmunotherapy of murine lymphoma with 131I-label1ed anti-T-cell antibodies. Cancer Res. 46:6233–6228, 1986.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Foon, K.A., Schroff, R.W., Bunn, P.A., et al. Effects of monoclonal antibody serotherapy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood 643:1085–1093, 1984.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Harkonen, S., Stoudemire, J., Mischak, R., Spitler, L.E., Lopez, H. and Scannon, P. Toxicity and immunogenicity of monoclonal antimelanoma antibody-ricin A chain immunotoxin in rats. Cancer Res. 47:1377–1382, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sears, H.F., Mattis, J., Herlyn, D., Hayry, P., Atkinson, B., Ernst, C, Steplewski, Z. and Koprowski, H. Phase 1 clinical trial of monoclonal antibody in treatment of gastrointestinal tumors. Lancet i:762–765, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mach, J.P., Buchegger, F., Grob, J.-P.H., Von Fliedner, V., Carrel, SX., Barrelet, L., Bischof-Delaloye, A. and Delaloye, B. Improvement of colon carcinoma imaging: From polyclonal anti-CEA antibodies and static photoscanning to monoclonal Fab fragments and ECT. In: Monoclonal Antibodies for Cancer Detection and Therapy, (eds. R.W. Baldwin and V.S. Byers) Academic Press, New York, 1985, pp. 53–64.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bumol, T.F., Parrish, J., DeHerdt, S.V., Spearman, M.E., Pohland, R., Borowitz, M.O., Briggs, S.L., Baker, A.L., Marder, P. and Apelgren, L.D. Studies on a epithelial/epithelial malignancy associated antigen associated with human adenocarcinomas. In: Immunological Approaches the Diagnosis and Therapy of Breast Cancer, (ed. R.L. Ceriani) Plenum Press, New York, 1987, pp. 205–215.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Frankel, A., Ring, D., Bjorn, J., Bloch, W., Laird, K.T., Chong, K.T., Hwang, K. and Winkelhake, J. Breast cancer immunotoxins. In: Monoclonal Antibodies and Breast Cancer, (ed. R.L. Ceriani) Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston, 1985, pp. 269–292.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Greenwood, F.C. and Hunter, W.M. The preparation of 131I-labelled human growth hormone of high specific radioactivity. Biochem. J. 89:114–123, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Markwell, M.A.K. and Fox, F.C. Surface-specific iodination of membrane proteins of viruses and eucaryotic cells using 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3α,6α-diphenylglycoluril. Amer. Chem. Soc. 78:0417–4807, 1978.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hnatowich, D.J., Layne, W.W., Childs, R.L., Lanteigne, D. and Davis, M.A.. Radioactive labelling of antibody: a simple and efficient method. Science 220:613–615, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ceriani, R.L. and Blank, E.W. Experimental therapy of breast cancer with anti-breast epithelial radioimmunoconjugates. In: Immunological Approaches the Diagnosis and Therapy of Breast Cancer, (ed. R.L. Ceriani) Plenum Press, New York, 1987, pp. 229–243.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Shimizu, M. and Yamauchi, K. Isolation and characterization of mucin-like glycoprotein in human milk fat globule membrane. J. Biochem. 91:515–524, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Shimizu, M., Yamauchi, K., Miyauchi, Y., Sakurai, T., Tokugawa, K. and Mcllhinney, R.A. High-Mr glycoprotein profiles in human milk serum and fat-globule membrane. Biochem J. 233:725–730, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Burchell, J. Durbin H. and Taylor-Papadimitriou, J. Complexity of expression of antigenic determinants recognised by monoclonal antibodies HMFG-1 and HMFG-2, in normal and malignant human mammary epithelial cells. J. Immunol. 131:508–513, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Nuti, M., Teramoto, Y., Mariani-Costantini, R., Hand, P., Colcher, D. and Schlom, J. Amonoclonal antibody (B72.3) defines patterns of distribution of a novel tumor-associated antigen in human carcinoma cell populations. Int. J. Cancer 29:539–545, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Springer, G., Desai, P., Robinson, M., Tegtmeyer, H. and Scanlon, E. The fundamental and diagnostic role of T and Tn antigens in breast carcinoma at the earliest histologic stage and throughout. Prog, in Clin, and Biol. Res. 204:47–70. 1986.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gendler, S. Burchell, J. Griffiths, A.B. and Taylor-Papadimitriou, J. Molecular and immunological analysis of mucin molecules produced by normal and malignant human mammary epithelial cells. In: Immunological Approaches the Diagnosis and Therapy of Breast Cancer, (ed. R.L. Ceriani) Plenum Press, New York, 1987, pp. 33–40, 1987.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Longnecker, B.M., Willians, D.J., MacLean, G.D., Selvaraj, S. Suresh, M.R. and Noujaim, A.A. Monoclonal antibodies and synthetic tumor-associated glycoconjugates in the study of the expression of Thomsen-Friedenreich-like and Tn-like antigens on human cancers. J.Nat. Cancer Inst. 78:489–496, 1987.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Heid, H.W., Winter, S., Bruder, G. Keenan, T.W. and Jarasch, E.D.. Butyrophilin, an apical plasma membrane-associated glycoprotein characteristic of lactating mammary glands of diverse species. Biochim. et Biophy. Acta. 728:228–238, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Sonnenberg, A., Daams, H., Calafat, J. and Hilgers, J. In vitro differentiation and progression of mouse mammary tumor cells. Cancer Res. 46:5913–5922, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Dulbecco, R., Allen, W.R., Bologna, M. and Bowman, M. Marker evolution during the development of the rat mammary gland: stem cells identified by markers and the role of myoepithelial cells. Cancer Res. 46:2449–2456, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ceriani, R.L.,Ed. Monoclonal Antibodies and Breast Cancer, Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston, 1985.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ceriani, R.L.,Ed. Immunological Approaches the Diagnosis and Therapy of Breast Cancer. Plenum Press, New York, 1987.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto L. Ceriani
    • 1
  1. 1.John Muir Cancer and Aging Research InstituteWalnut CreekUSA

Personalised recommendations