In vitro studies of the peri-implantation phase of human embryos

  • Svend Lindenberg
  • Poul Hyttel
Part of the Electron Microscopy in Biology and Medicine book series (EMBM, volume 5)


Since Hertig and Rock (1,2) described human embryonic development from fertilization until the late implantation stage, very few morphological studies on the human peri-implantation embryo have been reported (3,4,5). Hertig and Rock’s material detailed the normal light-microscopic morphology of the human embryo until the blastocyst stage, and from the implanted blastocyst until the 17th day of gestation. Unfortunately, they were unable to include the implanting blastocyst stage. Human embryos have been studied in detail at the ultrastructural level during the immediate preimplantation (3) and early postimplantation (days 10–11) stages. Thus, morphological information about the process of implantation itself is still lacking for the human.


Human Embryo Zona Pellucida Embryonic Cell Trophoblast Cell Implantation Site 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Hertig AT, Rock J, Adams EC: A description of 34 human ova within the first 17 days of development. Am J Anat 98: 435–491, 1956.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hertig AT, Rock J, Adams EC, Mulligan WJ: On the preimplantation stages of the human ovum: a description of four normal and four abnormal specimens ranging from the second to the fifth day of development. Contrib Embryol 240: 201–220, 1954.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mohr LR, Trounson AO: Comparative ultrastructure of hatched human, mouse and bovine blastocysts. J Reprod Fert 66: 499–504, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Larsen JF, Knoth M: Ultrastructure of the anchoring villi and trophoblastic shell in the second week of placentation. Acta obstet Gynec Scand 50: 117–128, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Knoth M, Larsen JF: Ultrastructure of a human implantation site. Acta Obstet Gynec Scand 51: 385–393, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schlafke S, Enders AC: Cellular basis of interaction between trophoblast and uterus at implantation. Biol Reprod 12: 41–65, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Enders AC, Schlafke S: Implantation in the ferret: epithelial penetration. Am J Anat 133: 291–316, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tachi S, Tachi C, Lindner HR: Ultrastructural features of blastocyst attachment and trophoblastic invasion in the rat. J Reprod Fert 21: 37–56, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Finn CA: Cellular changes in the uterus during the establishment of pregnancy in rodents. J Reprod Fert Suppl 31: 105–111, 1982.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lindenberg S, Lenz S, Hyttel P, Holmes P: Ultrastructure of the early human implantation in vitro. In press.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sherman MI, Wudi LR: The implanting mouse blastocyst. Cell Surface Rev 1: 81–125, 1976.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Morris JE, Potter SW, Buckley PM: Mouse embryos and uterine epithelia show adhesive interactions in culture. J Exp Zool 222: 195–198, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Blerkom JV, Chavez DJ: Morphodynamics of outgrowths of mouse trophoblast in the presence and absence of a monolayer of uterine epithelium. Am J Anat 162: 143–155, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sherman MI: Implantation of mouse blastocysts in vitro. In: Methods in Mammalian Reproduction. New York, San Francisco, London: Academic Press, Inc., p 247–257, 1978.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Salomon DS, Sherman MI: Implantation and invasiveness of mouse blastocysts on uterine monolayers. Exp Cell Res 90: 261–268, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dantzer V: Electron microscopy of the initial stages of placentation in the pig. Anat Embryol 172: 281–293, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wathes DC, Wooding FBP: An electron microscopic study of implantation in the cow. Am J Anat 159: 285–306, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lindenberg S, Lauritsen JG, Nielsen MH, Larsen JF: Isolation and culture of human endometrial cells. Fertil Steril 41(4): 650–652, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lindenberg S, Nielsen MH, Lenz S: In vitro studies of human blastocyst implantation. Ann NY Acad Sci 442: 368–374, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Buster JE, Bustillo M, Rodi IA, Cohen SW, Hamilton M, Simon JA, Thorneycroft IH, Marshall JR: Biologic and morphologic development of donated human ova recovered by nonsurgical uterina lavage. Am J Obstet Gynecol 153: 211–217, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    De Felici M, Salustri A, Sicracusa G: “Spontaneous” hardening of the zona pellucida of mouse oocytes during in vitrol culture. II. The effect of follicular fluid and glycosaminoglycans. Gamete Res 12: 227–235, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Quinn P, Warnes GM, Kerin JF, Kirby C: Culture factors in relation to the success of human in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Fertil Steril 41: 202–209, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lopata A, Martin M, Oliva K, Johnston I: Embryonic development and blastocyst implantation following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Fertil Steril 38(6): 682–687, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hyttel P: The epithelium of uterine biopsies from cyclic dairy cattle: ultrastructure and endocytotic activity. Acta Anat 123: 93–100, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Parr MB, Parr EL: Uterine luminal epithelium: protrusions mediated endocytosis, nor apocrine secretion, in the rat. Biol Reprod 11: 220–233, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Parr MB, Parr EL: Endocytosis in the uterine epithelium of the mouse. J Reprod Ferti 50: 151–153, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bitton-Casimiri V, Brun JL, Psychoyos A: Active release of material from rat blastocysts developing in vitro. J Reprod Ferti 27: 461–462, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bazer FW, Roberts RM: Biochemical aspects of concep-tus-endometrial interactions. J Exp Zool 228: 373–383, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nilsson O. The morphology of blastocyst implantation. J Reprod Ferti 39: 187–194, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Enders AC. Anatomical aspects of implantation. J Repr FertSuppl 25: 1–15, 1976.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Enders AC, Henoricks AG, Schlafke S. Implantation in the rhesus monkey: initial penetration of endometrium. Am J Anat 167: 275–298, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Enders AC, Schlafke S. Cytological aspects of tropho-blast-uterine interaction in early implantation. Am J Anat 125: 1–30, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lindenberg S, Hyttel P, Lenz S: In-vitro studies of an epitheliochorial and haemochorial implantation. Human Reproduction: Abstract of the First Meeting of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. IRL Press, 1985.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Svend Lindenberg
    • 1
  • Poul Hyttel
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chromosome Lab 4041, RigshospitaletUniversity of CopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations