Myocardial Effects of Partially Reduced Forms of Oxygen

  • M. Gupta
  • K. K. Gupta
  • P. K. Singal
Part of the Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine book series (DICM, volume 86)


Ground state oxygen (O2) is a diradical with two unpaired electrons having parallel spins in its outer orbit. This unique electronic configuration does limit reactivity of oxygen because inversion of spin is required for the oxidization of a two electron donor by oxygen (1). However, in vivo reduction of oxygen can occur rapidly when catalyzed by enzymes which are able to make complexes with O2 and electron donor substrate molecules (2) resulting in the formation of either water, (e.g. 4 electron reduction by cytochrome oxidase) or partially reduced forms of oxygen (PRFO) (e.g. reduction by xanthine oxidase and NADPH oxidase). These PRFO are highly reactive and can interact with unsaturated lipids to give rise to lipid peroxyradicals which can cause a fundamental change in the semipermeable characteristics of the membrane (3, 4).


Xanthine Oxidase Creatine Phosphate Lanthanum Nitrate High Energy Phosphate Contraction Band 
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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Gupta
    • 1
    • 2
  • K. K. Gupta
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. K. Singal
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Cardiovascular SciencesSt. Boniface General Hospital Research CenterWinnipegCanada
  2. 2.Department of Physiology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada

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