The association between depression and chronic pain has been consistently described by clinicians. Patients with chronic pain tend to have mood disturbance characterized by sadness, despondency, lethargy, and irritability. Their cognitive functioning is frequently slowed down, concentration is difficult, and they tend to be helpless and hopeless. They lose self-esteem. Anhedonia and suicidal ideation are common. Patients with chronic pain frequently complain of fatigue and have disturbances in sleep, appetite, and sexual functioning. Treatments which are successful with depression, such as antidepressant medication and psychotherapy, are useful in relieving depression, and may even be effective in reducing pain in this population.
KeywordsFatigue Arthritis Depression Dopamine Serotonin
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