Advertisement

Herpes Simplex Virus Infections of the Nervous System

  • William G. Stroop
  • J. Richard Baringer
Part of the Developments in Medical Virology book series (DIMV, volume 5)

Abstract

Herpes simplex viruses are a major cause of recurrent mucocutaneous vesicular diseases and can cause myelitis, aseptic meningitis, ocular disease and encephalitis. In this chapter we review the classification, replication and pathophysiology of herpetic infections. The clinical features of oral-facial, ocular, systemic, and nervous system herpetic infections are described with particular emphasis on the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of encephalitis. We review experimental evidence that indicates that infection of the olfactory pathway is fundamental to establishing the proper conditions for development of encephalitis. The concepts of reactivation of a latent temporal lobe infection and exogenous reinfection of the olfactory pathway as they relate to the development of encephalitis are discussed.

Keywords

Temporal Lobe Thymidine Kinase Aseptic Meningitis Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Olfactory Pathway 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Mettler, C. In: History of Medicine. McGraw-Hill Blakison, New York, 1947, p. 356.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wildy, P. Herpes: In: The Herpesviruses (Ed. A.S. Kaplan), Academic Press, Inc., New York 1973.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lowenstein. Muench Med Wochenschr 66:769, 1919.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schneiweiss, K.E. Zschr. Immunitatsforschg. 124:24, 1962.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baringer J.R. Progr. med. Virol. 20:1–26, 1975.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stroop W.G., Baringer J.R. Progr. Med. Virol. 28:1–43, 1982.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Heller M., Dix R.D., Baringer J.R., Schachter J, Conte, J.E., Jr. J. Inf. Dis. 146:584–588, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Corey, L., Spear, P.G. New. Engl. J. Med. 314:749–757, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Strauss, S.E., Rooney, J.F., Sever, J.L., Seidlin, M., Nusinoff-Lehrman, S., Cremer, K. Ann. Intern. Med. 103:404–419, 1985.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Smith, I.W., Peutherer, J.F., MacCallum, F.O. J. Hyg. 65:395, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pavan-Langston D., Grene, B. Comprehensive Ther. 10:30–36, 1984.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kauffman, H.E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17:941–957, 1978.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pavan-Langston D.R. In: Antiviral agents and viral diseases of man. 2nd. ed. (G.J. Galasso, T.C. Merigan, R.A. Buchanen, eds.), Raven Press, New York, 1984. pp. 207–246.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lehtinen, M., Rantala, I., Teisala, J. Heinone, P.K. J. Inf. Dis. 152:78–81, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schneider, V., Behm, F.G., Mumaw, V.R. Obstet. Gynecol. 59:259–262, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Morrisseau, P.M., Phillips, C.A., Leadbetter, G.W. J. Urol. 103:767–769, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Flewett, T.H., Parker, R.G.F., Philip, W.M. J. Clin. Pathol. 22:60–66, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    McDonald, G.B., Sharma, P., Hackman, R.C., Meyers, J.D., Thomas, E.D. Gasteroenterology 88:1111–1117, 1981.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shortsleeve, M.J., Gauvin, G.P., Gardner, R.C., Greenberg, M.S. Radiology 141:611–617, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Graham, B.S., Snell, J.D. Medicine (Baltimore) 62:384–393, 1983.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tuxen, D.V., Cade, J.F., McDonald, M.I., Buchman, M.R.C., Clark, R.J., Pain, M.C.F. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 126:416–419, 1983.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Streitman, J.J., Beregi, E., Hollos, I., Turi, S. Clin. Nephrol. 7:106–111, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schlesinger, J.J., Gandara, D., Bensch, K.G. Arch. Intern. Med. 138:422–424.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Freidman, H.M., Pincus, T., Gibilisco, P. Am. J. Med. 60:241–247, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Whittaker, J.A., Hardson, J.E. South. Med. J. 21:864–865, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Whitely, R.J., Nahmias, A.J., Visintine, A.M., Fleming, C.L., Alford, C.A. Pediatrics 66:489–494, 1980.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Orton, P.W., Huff, J.C., Tonnesen, M.G., Weston, W.L. Ann. Intern. Med. 101:48–50, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Britz, M., Sibulkin, D. J.A.M.A. 233:812–813, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Steel, J.G., Dix, R.D., Baringer, J.R. Ann. Neurol. 11:17–21, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Goodell, S.E., Quinn, T.C., Mkirtichian, E., Schuffler, M.D., Holmes, K.K., Corey, L. N. Engl. J. Med. 308:868–871, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Magnussen, CR., Patanella, H.P. Arch. Intern. Med. 139:1423–1424, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Adour, K.K., Bell, D.N., Hilsinger, R.L., Jr. J.A.M.A. 233:527–30.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Olson, L.C., Buescher, E.L., Artenstein, M.S. New Engl J Med 277:1271, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Whitely, R.J., Soong, S.J., Hirsch, M.S., Karchmer, A.W., Dolin, R., Galasso, G., Dunnick, J.K., Alford, C.A., NIAID Collaborative Antiviral Study Group. N. Engl. J. Med. 304:313–318, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Roches, J.C., Probst, A., Scollo-Lavizzari, G. Eur. Neurol. 23:466–471, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fishman, R.A. In: Cerebrospinal fluid findings in diseases of the nervous system. W.B. Saunders. Inc., New York, 1980, pp. 271–272.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Klapper, P.E., Laing, I., Longston, M. Lancet 607–609, 1981.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sindic, C.J.M., Kevers, L., Chalon, M.P., Laterre, E.C., Masson, P.L. J. Neurol. Sci. 67:359–369, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dutt, M.K., Johnston, I.D. Arch. Neurol. 39:99–102, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Greenberg, S.B., Taber, L., Septimus, E., Kohn, S., Puck, J., Bryan, R.N. Arch. Neurol. 38:58–59, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Baringer, J.R., Stroop, W.G. In: Antiviral chemotherapy: new directions for clinical application and research (J. Mills, L. Corey, eds), Elsevier Science Publishing, Co., Inc., Amsterdam, 1986. pp. 270–273.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Saito, Y., Rubenstein, R., Price, R.W., Fox, J.J., Watanabe, K.A. Ann. Neurol. 15:548–558, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hirsch, M.S., Schooley, R.T. New. Engl. J. Med. 309:963–970, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Davis, L.E., McLaren, L.C., Ann. Neurol. 13:192–195, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dix, R.D., Baringer, J.R., Panitch, H.S., Rosenberg, S.H., Hagedorn, J., Whaley, J. Ann Neurol. 13:196–200, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gutman, L.T., Wilfert, C.M., Eppes, S. J. Inf. Dis. 154:415–421, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rand, K.H., Bodor, N., El Koussi, A.A., Raad, I., Miyake, A., Houck, H., Gildersleeve N. J. Med. Virol. 20:1–8, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    McKendall, R.R. J. Med. Virol. 5:25–32, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Goodpasture, E.W., Teague, O. J. Med. Res. 44:121–138, 1923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cook, M.L., Stevens, J.G. Infect. Immun. 7:272–288, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kristensson, K., Lycke, E., Sjostrand, J. Acta. Neuropathol. 17:44–53, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Stroop, W.G., Rock, D.L., Fraser, N.W. Lab. Invest. 51:27–38, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Baringer, J.R., Griffith, J.F. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 22:89–104, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Stroop, W.G., Rock, D.L., Fraser, N.W. In: Herpesvirus, (Ed. F. Rapp), Alan Liss, Inc., New York, 1984, pp. 91–100.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Puga, A., Rosenthal, J.D., Openshaw, H., Notkins, A.L. Virology 89:102–211, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sokawa, Y., Ando, T., Ishihara, Y. Infect. Immun. 28:719–723, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    McKendall, R.R., Klassen, T., Baringer, J.R. Infect. Immun. 23:305–311, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Armerding, D., Mayer, P., Scriba,M., Hren, A., Rossiter, H. Immunobiol. 160:217–227, 1981.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lopez, C. In: Oncogenesis and herpesviruses (Eds. G. DeThe, W. Henle, and F. Rapp), International Agency for Research, Scientific Publication, Lyon, France, 1978, pp. 775–778.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Baringer, J.R., Swoveland, P.S. N. Engl. J. Med. 288:648–650, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Baringer, J.R., Swoveland, P. Lab. Invest. 30:230–239, 1974.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Cabrera C.V., Wholenberg, C, Openshaw, H., Rey-Mendez, M., Puga, A., Notkins, A.L. Nature 288:648–650, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Stevens J.G., Cook M.L., Jordan, M.C. Infect. Immun. 11:635–639, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Stevens, J.G., Cook, M.L. Science 173:843–845, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Walz, M.A., Yamamoto, H., Notkins, A.L. Nature 264:554–556, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Galloway, D.A., Fenoglio, C.M., McDougall, J.K. J. Virol. 41:686–691, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Galloway, D.A., Fenoglio, C., Schevchuck, M., McDougall, J.K. Virology 95:265–268, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rock, D.L., Fraser, N.W. Nature 302:523–525, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Knotts, F.B., Cook, M.L., Stevens, J.G. J. Exp. Med. 138:740–744, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kristensson, K., Nennesmo, I., Persson, L., Lycke, E. J. Neurol. Sci. 54:149–156, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Tomlinson, A.H., Esiri, M.M. J. Neurol. Sci. 60:473–484, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Esiri M.M., Tomlinson, A.H. J. Neurol. Sci. 64:213–217, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sekizawa, T., Openshaw, H. J. Virol. 50:263–266, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sequiera, L.W., Jennings, L.C., Carrasco, L.H., Lord, M.A., Curry, A., Sutton, R.N.P. Lancet ii: 609–612, 1979.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Fraser, N.W., Lawrence, W.C., Wroblewska, Z., Gilden, D.H., Koprowski, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 78:6461–6465, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Green, M.T., Rosborough, J.P., Dunkel E.C. Infect. Immun. 34:69–74, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Willey, D.E., Trousdale, M.D., Nesburn, A.B. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25:945–950, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Openshaw, H., Shavrina-Asher L.V., Wholenberg, C, Sekazawa, T., Notkins, A.L. J. Gen. Virol. 44:205–215, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hill, T.J., Blyth, W.A., Harbour, D.A. J. gen. Virol. 39:21–28, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hill, T.J., Ahuwalia, K., Blyth, W.A., In: Herpetic Eye Diseases (Ed. R. Sundmacher), Bergmann Verlag Munich, 1981, pp. 37–42.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Price, R.W., Schmitz, J. Infect. Immun. 19:523–532, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Rock D.L., Reed, D.E. Infect. Immun. 35:371–376, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Davies, D.H., Duncan, J.R. Cornell. Vet. 64:340–366, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Schmidt, J.R., Rasmussen, A.F. J. Inf. Dis. 106:154–158, 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Good, R.A., Campbell, B. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 68:82–87, 1948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kwon B.S., Gangarosa, L.P., Burch, K.B., deBack, J., Hill, J.M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21:442–449, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Tenser, R.B., Dunstan, M.E. Virology 99:417–422, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Tenser R.B., Miller R.L., Rapp, F. Science 205:915–917, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Gordon, Y.J., Gilden, D., Becker, Y. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 24:599–657, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gordon, Y.J., Gilden, D., Shtram, Y., Asher, Y., Tabor, E., Wellish, M., Devlin, M., Snipper, D., Hadar, J., Becker, Y. Arch. Virol. 76:39–49, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Meyers-Elliot, R.H., Chitijian, P.A., Dethlefs, B.A. Ophthalmic. Res. 15:240–256, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Fong, B., Scriba, M. J. Virol. 34:644–649, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gordon, Y.J., Rao, H., Arrulo-Cruz, T. Curr. Eye. Res. 3:651–657, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Dix, R.D., McKendall, R.R., Baringer, J.R. Infect. Immun. 40:103–112, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Metcalf, J.F., Michaelis, B.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25:1222–1225, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Centifanto-Fitzgerald, Y.M., Yamaguchi, T., Kaufman, H.E., Tognon, M., Roizman, B. J. Exp. Med. 155:475–489, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Thompson, R.L., Wagner, E.K., Stevens, J.G. Virology 131:180–192, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Schlitt, M., Lakeman, A.D., Wilson, E.R., To, A., Acoff, R.W., Harsh, G.R. III, Whitely, R.J. J. Inf. Dis. 153:732–735, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Green, M.T., Dunkel, E.C., Courtney, R.J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25:1436–1440, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Stroop, W.G., Schaefer, D.C. J. Inf. Dis. 153:721–731, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Stroop, W.G., Schaefer, D.C. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., In Press.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Whitley, R.J. In: The herpesviruses (Ed. B. Roizman), Plenum Press, New York, 1985, pp. 1–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Baringer J.R. New. Engl. J. Med. 291:28–830, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Bastian, F.O., Rabson, A.S., Yee, C.L., Tralka, T.S. Science 178:306–307, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Davis L.E., Johnson R.T. Ann. Neurol. 5:2–5, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Asbell, P.A., Centifanto-Fitzgerald, Y.M., Chandler, J.W., Kaufman, H.E. Invest. Ophthalmol. 25:951–954, 1984.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lonsdale, D.M., Brown, S.M., Subak-Sharpe, J.H., Warren, K.G., Koprowski, H. J. Gen. Virol. 43:151–171, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Buchman, T.G., Roizman, B., Adams, G., Stover, B.H. J. Inf. Dis. 138:488–498, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Buchman, T.G., Simpson, T., Nosal, C., Roizman B. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 354:279–290, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Linnemann, C.C., Jr., Light, I.J., Buchman, T.G., Ballard, J.L., Roizman, B. Lancet i:964–966, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Lonsdale, D.M., Brown, S.M., Lang, J., Subak-Sharpe, J.H., Koprowski, H., Warren, K.G., Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 354:291–308, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Roizman, B., Tognon, M. Lancet i:677, 1982.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Pavan-Langston, D., Grene, B. Comprehensive Ther. 10:30–36, 1984.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Lewis, M.E., Wai-Chong, L., Jeffrey, V.M., Warren, K.G. J Virol 52:300–305, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Whitley, R., Lakeman A.D., Nahmias, A.J., Roizman, B.N. Engl. J. Med. 307:1060–1062, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Centifanto-Fitzgerald, Y.M., Rayfield, M., Tian, P-Y, Kaufman, H.E. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 179:55–67, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Centifanto-Fitzgerald, Y.M., Varnell, E.D., Kaufman, H.E. Infect. Immun. 35: 1125–1132, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Gerdes, J.C., Smith, D. J. Gen. Virol. 64:2441–2454, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Vandvik, B., Skoldenberg, B., Forsgren, M., Stiernstedt, G., Jeansson, S., Norrby, E. J. Neurol. 231:307–312, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Pass, R.R., Whitely R.J., Whelchel J.D., Diethelm A.D., Reynolds D.W., Alford C.A. J. Inf. Dis. 250:3059–3062, 1983.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Naragi, S., Jackson, G.G., Jonasson, O., Yamashiorya, H.M. J. Inf. Dis. 136:531–540, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Meyers, J.D., Fluornoy, N., Thomas, E.D. J. Inf. Dis. l42:338–346, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Kapoor, A.K., Nash, A.A., Wildy, P, Phelan, J.,McLean, C.S., Field, H.J. J. Gen. Virol. 60:225–233, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • William G. Stroop
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • J. Richard Baringer
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Neurovirology Research Laboratory, Veterans Administration Medical CenterUniversity of Utah Medical SchoolSalt Lake CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyUniversity of Utah Medical SchoolSalt Lake CityUSA
  3. 3.Department of PathologyUniversity of Utah Medical SchoolSalt Lake CityUSA

Personalised recommendations