Receptor Mechanisms in Ischemia and Infarction
The autonomic nervous system, consisting of the sympathetic and parasympathetic limbs, is the most important system extrinsic to the heart for regulating cardiac function. Much has been learned in the last few years about the molecular mechanisms by which the autonomic nervous system regulates the heart. The components of the autonomic nervous system that regulate the heart include sympathetic and vagal nerve terminals, beta-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors, a transmembrane signal transduction system, protein kinases that phosphorylate various proteins within the myocardial cell, and the proteins themselves whose functions are altered when they are phosphorylated [1–6]. For discussion of regulation and interaction at the level of sympathetic and vagal nerves, see the chapter by Levy in this volume.
KeywordsIschemia Adenosine Norepinephrine Epinephrine Choline
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Watanabe, A.M., Bailey, J.C., Lathrop, D.A., and Besch, H.R., Jr. 1978. Acetylcholine antagonism of the cellular electrophysiologic effects of isoproterenol, in Nervous Mechanisms in Cardiac Arrhythmias, pp. 349–358, P.J. Schwartz, ed., New York, Raven Press.Google Scholar
- 3.Watanabe, A.M. 1983 Pharmacological modification of cardiac function: cholinergic agonists and antagonists, in Cardiac Therapy, B.F. Hoffman and M.R. Rosen, eds., pp. 95–144, Boston, Martinus Nijhoff.Google Scholar
- 4.Watanabe, A.M. 1984. Cellular mechanisms of muscarinic regulation of cardiac function, in Nervous Control of Cardiovascular Function, W. Randall, ed., pp. 130–164, New York, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- 5.Watanabe, A.M. and Lindemann, J.P. 1984. Mechanisms of adrenergic and cholinergic regulation of myocardial contractility, in Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Heart, N. Sperelakis, ed., pp. 377–404, Boston, Martinus Nijhoff.Google Scholar
- 6.Fleming, J.W. and Watanabe, A.M. 1986. Biochemical mechanisms of parasympathetic regulation of cardiac function, in The Heart and Cardiovascular System, H.A. Fozzard et al. eds., pp. 1679–1688, New York, Raven Press.Google Scholar