Hyponatremia in Congestive Heart Failure

  • C. T. G. Flear
Part of the Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine book series (DICM, volume 102)


Dyspnoea on effort, venous congestion of the lungs and the liver, distension of neck veins and oedema are features of congestive heart failure (CHF) which result from a progressive accumulation of sodium, chloride, bicarbonate and water. The interstitial fluid (ISF) increases in all tissues and and body weight rises despite obvious wasting that may develop in some patients. Resting energy expenditure increases in progressive failure, as Na+ influx into skeletal muscle cells increases. With oedema accumulation, there is a fall in the concentrations of proteoglycans that structure tissue ISF. This increases the mobility of ISF and enables the clinical sign of pitting oedema to be demonstrated.


Congestive Heart Failure Rest Energy Expenditure Serum Sodium Level Severe Congestive Heart Failure Congestive Heart Failure Patient 
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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. T. G. Flear
    • 1
  1. 1.University Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Metabolic MedicineUniversity of Newcastle upon TyneUK

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