Advertisement

Leishmaniasis pp 721-727 | Cite as

Relapse in Kala Azar: Failure of Sodium Stibogluconate to Clear Parasites from Organs Other than the Liver

  • K. C. Carter
  • J. Alexander
  • A. J. Baillie
  • T. F. Dolan
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 171)

Abstract

Relapse in Kala-azar is a common problem, occurring in 5–30% of patients (Chulay et al, 1983, Sanyal and Arora, 1979). Although this could be attributed to re-infection, there is a strong possibility that it may at least partly be due to treatment failure. Two recent studies suggest that removal of parasites from certain tissue sites may be difficult.

Keywords

Visceral Leishmaniasis Parasite Burden Muramyl Dipeptide Parasite Number Sodium Stibogluconate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adinolfi, L.E., Bonventre, P.F., Vander Pas, M. and Eppstein, D.A. (1985) Synergistic effect of glucantime and a liposome-encapsulated muramyl dipeptide analog in therapy of experimental visceral leishmaniasis. Infect. and Immun., 48:409.Google Scholar
  2. Alving, C.R. (1986) Liposomes as drug carriers in leishmaniasis and malaria. Parasit. Today, 2:101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anabwani, G.M., Ngira, J.A., Dimiti, G. and Bryceson, A.D.M. (1983) Comparison of two dosage schedules of sodium stibogluconate in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya. Lancet, 29 July, 1983, 211.Google Scholar
  4. Baillie, A.J., Florence, A.T., Hume, L.R., Muirhead, G.T. and Rogerson, A. (1985) The preparation and properties of niosomes — non-ionic surfactant vesicles. J. Pharm.Pharmacol., 37:863.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baillie, A.J., Coombs, G.H., Dolan, T.F. and Laurie, J. (1986) Non-ionic surfactant vesicles, niosomes, as a delivery system for the anti-1eishmanial drug, sodium stibogluconate. J.Pharm.Pharmacol., 38:502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Black, C.D.V., Watson, G.J. and Ward, R.J. (1977) The use of pentostam liposomes in the chemotherapy of experimental leishmaniasis. Trans.Royal Soc.Trop.Med.Hyg., 71:550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blackwell, J.M., Freeman, J.C. and Bradley D.J. (1980) Influence of the H-2 complex on acquired resistance to Leishmania donovani infection in mice. Nature, 283:72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bradley, D.J. and Kirkley, J. (1977) Regulation of Leishmania populations within the host. 1. The variable course of Leishmania donovani infections in mice. Clin.Exp.Immunol., 30:119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Carter, K.C., Baillie, A.J., Alexander, J. and Dolan, T.F. (1987) submitted J. Pharm.Pharmacol. The therapeutic effect of sodium stibogluconate in BALB/c mice infected with L. donovani is organ dependent.Google Scholar
  10. Chulay, J.D., Bhatt, S.M., Muigai, R., Ho, M., Gochihi, G., Were, J.B., Chunge, C. and Bryceson, A.D. (1983) A comparison of three dosage regimens of sodium stibogluconate in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya. J. Infect. Dis., 148:148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Koech, D.K. (1987) Subpopulations of T. lymphocytes in Kenyan patients with visceral leishmaniasis. Am.J.Trop.Med.Hyg., 36:497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Manson-Bahr, P.E.C. (1959) East African kala-azar with special reference to the pathology, prophylaxis and treatment. Trans.Roy.Soc.Trop.Med.Hyg., 53:123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Napier, L.E. (1946) in “The Principles and Practice of Tropical Medicine”, p.134, Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Sacks, D.L., Lai, S.L., Shrivastava, S.N., Blackwell, J. and Neva, F.A. (1987) An analysis of T cell responsiveness in Indian Kala-azar. J.Immunol., 138:908.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Sanyal, R.K. and Arora, R.R. (1979) Assessment of drug therapy of Kala-azar in current epidemic in Bihar.J.Commun.Dis., 11:198.Google Scholar
  16. Ulczak, O.M. and Blackwell, J.M. (1983) Immunoregulation of genetically controlled acquired response to Leishmania donovani. Infection if mice: the effects of parasite dose, cyclophosphamide and sublethal irradiation. Parasite Immunol., 5:449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Wickramasinghe, S.N., Abdalla, S.H. and Kaisili, E.G. (1987) Ultrastructure of bone marrow in patients with visceral leishmaniasis. J.Clin.Path., 40:267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. C. Carter
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. Alexander
    • 1
  • A. J. Baillie
    • 2
  • T. F. Dolan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ImmunologyUniversity of StrathclydeGlasgowUK
  2. 2.Department of PharmacyUniversity of StrathclydeGlasgowUK

Personalised recommendations