Advertisement

The ultrastructure of the osteocyte

Chapter
Part of the Electron Microscopy in Biology and Medicine book series (EMBM, volume 7)

Abstract

Among the cells of the body, the osteocyte is in a very special situation because of its position in an enclosing lacuna within a mineralized matrix. It is not completely isolated or recluse, however, because its lacuna is not hermetically closed. In fact, many canaliculi spread out from it, penetrating the surrounding tissue in every direction and allowing the passage of a thick network of osteocytic cytoplasmic processes that set up many contacts with other osteocytes, bone cells, and structures. Moreover, although the permeability of mineralized matrix is low, it is enough to allow the osteocyte to be reached by diffusible substances.

Keywords

Uranyl Acetate Bone Cell Bone Matrix Collagen Fibril Brush Border 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Hall BK: Developmental and cellular skeletal biology. New York: Academic Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pritchard JJ: General anatomy and histology of bone. In: The Biochemistry and Physiology of Bone. GH Bourne (ed). New York: Academic Press, p 1 - 27, 1956.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Carson FL, Martin JH, Matthews JL: Electron micro¬scope techniques. In: Skeletal Research. An Experimen¬tal Approach. DJ Simmons, AS Kunin, (eds). New York: Academic Press, p 421 - 453, 1979.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Warshawsky H, Moore G: A technique for the fixation and decalcification of rat incisors for electron microscopy. J Histochem Cytochem 15: 542 - 549, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baud A: Morphologie et structure inframicroscopique des ostéocytes. Acta Anat 51: 209 - 225, 1962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dudley HR, Spiro D: The fine structure of bone cells. J Biophys Biochem Cytol 11: 627 - 649, 1961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jande SS: Fine structural study of osteocytes and their surrounding bone matrix with respect to their age in young chicks. J Ultrastruct Res 37: 279 - 300, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jande SS, Bélanger LF: Electron microscopy of osteo¬cytes and the pericellular matrix in rat trabecular bone. Calcif Tissue Res 6: 280 - 289, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Luk SC, Nopajaroonsri C, Simon GT: The ultrastructure of cortical bone in young adult rabbits. J Ultrastruct Res 46: 184 - 205, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tonna EA: An electron microscopic study of osteocyte release during osteoclasis in mice of different ages. Clin Orthop 87: 311 - 317, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tonna EA: Electron microscopic evidence of alternating osteocytic-osteoclastic and osteoplastic activity in the peri- lacunar walls of aging mice. Connect Tiss Res 1: 221 - 230, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wassermann F, Yaeger JA: Fine structure of the osteo¬cyte capsule and of the wall of the lacunae in bone. Z Zellforsch 67: 636 - 652, 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Weiss RE, Watabe N: Studies on the biology of the fish bone. III. Ultrastructure of osteogenesis and resorption in osteocytic (cellular) and anosteocytic (acellular) bones. Calcif Tissue Int 28: 43 - 56, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Baud CA: Structure et fonctions des ostéocytes dans les conditions normales et sous l’influence de l’extrait para- thyroidien. Schweiz Mediz Wochenschr 98: 717 - 720, 1968.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Baud CA, Boivin G: Effects of hormones on osteocyte function and perilacunar wall structure. Clin Orthop 136:Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Baud CA, Boivin G: Modifications of the perilacunar walls resulting from the effect of fluoride on osteocytic activity. Metab Bone Dis Rel Res 1: 49 - 54, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cameron DA, Paschall HA, Robinson RA: Changes in the fine structure of bone cells after the administration of parathyroid extract. J Cell Biol 33: 1 - 14, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gothlin G, Ericsson JLE: Fine structural localization of acid Phosphomonoesterase in the osteoblasts and osteo¬cytes of fracture callus. Histochemie 35: 81 - 91, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jande SS: Effects of parathormone on osteocytes and their surrounding bone matrix. An electron microscopic study. Z Zellforsch 130: 467 - 470, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Krempien B, Ritz E: Effects of parathyroid hormone on osteocytes. Ultrastructural evidence for anisotropic osteo¬lysis and involvement of the cytoskeleton. Metab Bone Dis Rel Res 1: 55 - 65, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Matthews JL, Talmage RV, Doppelt R: Responses of the osteocyte lining cell complex the bone cell unit to cal¬citonin. Metab Bone Dis Rel Res 2: 113 - 122, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Norimatsu H, Vanden Wiel CJ, Talmage RV: Electron microscopic study of the effects of calcitonin on bone cells and their extracellular milieu. Clin Orthop 139: 250 - 258, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Remagen W, Caesar R, Heuck F: Elektronenmikroskop¬ische und mikroradiographische Befunde am Knochen der mit Dihydrotachysterin behandelten Ratte. Virchows Arch [A] 345: 245 - 254, 1968.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Remagen W, Hohling HJ, Hall TT, Caesar R: Electron microscopical and microprobe observations on the cell sheath of stimulated osteocytes. Calcif Tissue Res 4: 60 - 68, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schulz A, Donath K, Delling G: Ultrastruktur und Ent¬wicklung des Corticalisosteocyten. Tierexperimentelle Untersuchungen an der Rattentibia. Virchows Arch [A] 364: 347 - 356, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Weisbrode SE, Capen CC, Nagode LA: Effects of para¬thyroid hormone on bone of thyroparathyroidectomized rats. Am J Path 75: 529 - 542, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Weisbrode SE, Capen CC, Nagode LA: Ultrastructural evaluation of the effects of vitamin D and uremia on bone in the rat. Am J Path 76: 359 - 376, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Anderson MP, Capen CC: Fine structural changes of bone cells in experimental nutritional osteodystrophy of green iguanas. Virchows Arch [B] 20: 169 - 184, 1976.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bonucci E, Gherardi G: Osteocyte ultrastructure in renal osteodystrophy. Virchows Arch [A] 373: 213 - 231, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lindenfelser R, Schmitt HP, Haubert P: Vergleichende rasterelektronenmikroskopische Knochenuntersuchungen bei primärem und sekundärem Hyperparathyreoidismus. Zur frage der periosteocytaren Osteolyse. Virchows Arch [A] 360: 141 - 154, 1973.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Steendijk R, Boyde A: Scanning electron microscopic observations on bone from patients with hypophosphate- mic (vitamin D resistant) rickets. Calcif Tissue Res 11: 242 - 250, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Boyde A, Jones SJ, Ashford J: Scanning electron micro¬scope observations and the question of possible osteocytic bone mini-(re-)modelling. In: Current Advances in Ske- letogenesis. M Silbermann, HC Slavkin, (eds). Amster¬dam: Excerpta Medica, p 305 - 314, 1982.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mentón DN, Simmons DJ, Chang S-L, Orr BY: From bone lining cell to osteocyte. A SEM study. Anat Record 209: 29 - 39, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Palumbo C: A three-dimensional ultrastructural study of osteoid-osteocytes in the tibia of chick embryos. Cell Tissue Res 246: 125 - 131, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cañé V, Marotti G, Volpi G, Zaffe D, Palazzini S, Remaggi F, Muglia MA: Size and density of osteocyte lacunae in different regions of long bones. Calcif Tissue Int 34: 558 - 563, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Marotti G: Decrement in volume of osteoblasts during osteon formation and its effect on the size of the corre¬sponding osteocytes. In: Bone Histomorphometry. PJ Meunier (ed). Paris: Armour Montagu, p 385 - 397, 1977.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Marotti G: Osteocyte orientation in human lamellar bone and its relevance to the morphometry of periosteocytic lacunae. Metab Bone Dis Rel Res 1: 325 - 333, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yeager VL, Chiemchanya S, Chaiseri P: Changes in size of lacunae during the life of osteocytes in osteons of compact bone. J Gerontol 30: 9 - 14, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Jande SS, Bélanger LF: The life cycle of the osteocyte. Clin Orthop 94: 281 - 305, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tonna EA: An electron microscopic study of skeletal cell aging. II. The osteocyte. Exp Gerontol 8: 9 - 16, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Baylink DJ, Wergedal JE: Bone formation by osteocytes. Am J Physiol 221: 669 - 678, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zambonin Zallone A, Teti A, Nico B, Primavera MV: Osteoplastic activity of mature osteocytes evaluated by 3H-proline incorporation. Basic Appl Histochem 26: 65- 67, 1982.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Marotti G: Three dimensional study of the osteocyte lacunae In: Bone Histomorphometry. WSS Jee, AM Par- fitt (eds), Paris: Armour Montagu, p 223-229, 1981.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Baud CA: Observations au microscope électronique sur les canalicules du tissu osseux compact. Bull Microsc Appl 10: 45 - 48, 1968.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Federman M, Nichols G Jr: Bone cell cilia: Vestigial or functional organelles? Calcif Tissue Res 17: 81 - 85, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Holtrop ME, Weinger JM: Ultrastructural evidence for a transport system in bone. In: Calcium, Parathyroid Hor¬mone and the Calcitonins. RV Talmage, PL Munson, (eds). Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, p 365 - 374, 1972.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    King GJ, Holtrop ME: Actin-like filaments in bone cells of cultured mouse calvaría as demonstrated by binding of heavy meromyosin. J Cell Biol 66: 445 - 451, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Weinger JM, Holtrop ME: An ultrastructural study of bone cells: The occurrence of microtubules, microfila¬ments and tight junctions. Calcif Tissue Res 14: 15 - 29, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Whitson SW: Tight junction formation in the osteon. Clin Orthop 86: 206 - 213, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Donath K, Delling G: Elektronenmikroskopische Darstel¬lung der periosteocytaren Matrix durch ultradunnschnitt- EDTA-Entkalkung. Virchows Arch [A] 354: 305 - 311, 1971.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bélanger LF: Osteocytic osteolysis. Calcif Tissue Res 4: 1 -12, 1969.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bélanger LF: Osteocytic resorption. In: The Biochemistry and Physiology of Bone, 2nd ed. Vol 3. GH Bourne (ed). New York: Academic Press, p 239 - 270, 1971.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Boyde A: Scanning electron microscope studies of bone. In: The Biochemistry and Physiology of Bone, 2nd ed, vol 1. GH Bourne (ed) New York: Academic Press, p 259 - 310, 1972.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Recklinghausen FV: Untersuchungen über Rachitis und Osteomalacia. Jena: Gustav Fischer, 1910.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bélanger LF, Robichon J: Parathormone-induced osteo¬lysis in dogs. J Bone Joint Surg 46A: 1008- 1012, 1964.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Duriez J: Les modifications calciques périostéocytaires. Etude microradiographique à l’analyseur automatique d’images. Nouv Presse Méd 3: 2007 - 2010, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Krempien B, Geiger G, Ritz E, Buttner S: Osteocytes in chronic uremia. Differential count of ostocytes in human femoral bone. Virchows Arch [A] 360: 1 - 9, 1973.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Krempien B, Ritz E, Beck U, Keilbach H: Osteopathy in maintenance hemodialysis. Virchows Arch [A] 357: 257 - 274, 1972.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Meunier P, Bernard J, Vignon G: La mesure de l’élargis¬sement périostéocytaire appliquée au diagnostic des hyperparathyroidies. Path Biol 19: 371 - 378, 1971.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Vittali PH: Östeocyte activity. Clin Orthop 56: 213 - 226, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bélanger LF, Migicovsky BB: Histochemical evidence of proteolysis in bone; The influence of parathormone. J Histochem Cytochem 11: 735 - 737, 1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sannes PL, Schofield BH, McDonald DF: Histochemical evidence of cathepsin B, dipeptidyl peptidase I, and dip- eptidyl peptidase II in rat bone. J Histochem Cytochem 34: 983 - 988, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Wergedal JE, Baylink DJ: Distribution of acid and alka¬line phosphatase activity in undemineralized sections of the rat tibial diaphysis. J Histochem Cytochem 17: 799 - 806, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bianco P, Ballanti P, Bonucci E: Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase activity in rat osteoblasts and osteocytes. Calcif Tissue Int 43: 167 - 171, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bonucci E, Lo Cascio V, Adami S, Cominacini L, Gal- vanini G, Scuro A: The ultrastructure of bone cells and bone matrix in human primary hyperparathyroidism. Virchows Arch [A] 379: 11 - 23, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Parfitt AM: The cellular basis of bone turnover and bone loss. A rebuttal of the osteocytic resorption-bone flow theory. Clin Orthop 127: 236 - 247, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bonucci E, Gherardi G: Histochemical and electron microscope investigations on medullary bone. Cell Tissue Res 163: 81 - 97, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Frost HM: Micropetrosis. J Bone Joint Surg 42A: 144 - 150, 1968.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bonucci E: Matrix vesicles: Their role in calcification. In: Dentin and Dentinogenesis, Vol 1. A Linde (ed). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, p 135 - 154, 1984.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bonucci E: Matrix vesicle formation in cartilage of scor¬butic guinea pigs: Electron microscope study of serial sections. Metab Bone Dis Rel Res 1: 205 - 212, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Cameron DA, Paschall HA, Robinson RA: Changes in the fine structure of bone cells after the administration of parathyroid extract. J Cell Biol 33: 1 - 14.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di BiopatologiaUmana Sezione di Anatomia PatologicaRomaItaly

Personalised recommendations