The recreational use of MDMA in the United States has never been documented adequately. According to some reports in the popular press, it is possible that MDMA may be one of the most widely used recreational drugs of the late 1980s. Alternatively, MDMA use may be restricted to a few locations and may be relatively inconsequential in comparison to drugs such as cocaine and marijuana. There are simply no good data on which to adequately define and assess the extent of recreational MDMA use in the United States.


Psychoactive Drug Panic Attack Subjective Effect Recreational Drug Mdma User 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kirsch, M.M., 1986 “Ecstasy”. In Designer Drugs. Minneapolis, MN: Complare Publications, pp. 74–97.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beck, J. and Morgan. P. A., 1982. Designer Drug Confusion A focus on MDMA J Drug Educ. 16: 287–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dowling, G.P., McDonough, E.T., and Bost, R.O., 1986. “Eve” and “Ecstacy”: A report of five deaths associated with the use of MDEA and MDMA. JAMA 257:1615–1617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Adler. J.. 1985. Getting high on “Ecstasy.” Newsweek, April 15. p. 96.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Buffum.J and Moser, C.. 1986. MDMA and human sexual function. J Psychoactive Drugs 18: 355–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Calvert. C., 1987. Psychedelic drug use up on Farm. Stanford Daily. Match 3.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Peroutka. S.J., 1987. Incidence of recreational use of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine(MDMA; “Ecstasy”) on an undergraduate campus N. Engl J. Med 317: 1542–1543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pero-utka. S J., Newman, H., and Harris. H., 1988. Subjective eflccts of 3, 4-methyJcnedi- oxymethamphetamine in recreational users. Neuropsychopharmacology 1: 273–277.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shulgin. A T., 1986 The background and chemistry of MDMA J Psychoactive Drugs 19 291–304.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Greer. G. and Tolbert, R., 1986 Subjective reports of the effects of MDMA in a clinical setting J. Psychoactive Drugs 18. 319–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Downing. J, 1986. The psychological and physiological effects of MDMA on normal volunteers J Psychoactive Drugs 18: 335–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Accola.J., 1988 MDMA: Studies of popular illicit drug raise questions about effects. Rocky Mountain News, March 4, p 72.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Khantzian, E.J. and McKenna, C.J.. 1979. Acute loxic and withdrawal reactions associated with drug use and abuse. Ann. Int. Med. 90: 361–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Seymour, R.B.. 1986. MDMA. San Francisco. CA: Haight-Ashbury Publications.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Whitaker-Azmitia, P.A. and Aronson. T.. 1989. Panic attacks associated with MDMA (Ecstasy). Am. J. Psychiat., in pressGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brazil. J. 1988. Controversy continues to surround the drug “ecstasy.” Peninsula Times Tribune, July 26, p. Al.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen J. Peroutka

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations