Automated Bone Lead Analysis by K-X-Ray Fluorescence for the Clinical Environment
The use of K-x-ray fluorescence (K-XRF) for measuring the content of lead in bones began over a decade ago (Ahlgren et al., 1976). In K-XRF, lead atoms are made to emit K-x-rays by exciting them with gamma radiation from a radioisotope. It was realized that extracting the signal (the fluorescence photons) from the large background (Compton scattered photons) was the chief impediment to be overcome. The use of carefully chosen geometries coupled with radioisotopes with gamma emissions of a single or few energies has succeeded in this regard (Ahlgren et al., 1976; Price et al., 1984; Somervaille et al., 1985; Jones et al., 1987). For radiation safety reasons, as well as ease of access to bone material with little overlying tissue, measurement sites are bones in the appendicular skeleton (Ahlgren et al., 1980; Somervaille et al., 1987; Somervaille et al., 1985; Chettle et al., 1989).
KeywordsAttenuation Mold Polyethylene Tungsten Coherence
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