Confocal Optical Microscopy

  • A. Boyde

Abstract

Although confocal microscopes were invented a long time ago, they have taken a long time to get off the ground. Until recently, this family of methods of microscopy was in the hands of the developers. However, many different manufacturers have now appeared on the scene with instruments ready for purchase.

Keywords

Formaldehyde Mercury Fluores Peri FITC 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    M. Minsky, Microscopy Apparatus, United States Patent Office. Filed Nov. 7, 1957, granted Dec. 19, 1961. Patent No. 3, 013, 467 (1961).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Petran, M. Hadravsky, M. D. Egger, and R. Galambos, “Tandem-scanning reflected light microscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 660–664 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. Davidovits and M. D. Egger, “Scanning laser microscope for biological investigations,” Appl. Opt. 10, 1615–1619 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. D. Egger, W. Gezari, P. Davidovits, M. Hadravsky, and M. Petráñ, “Observation of nerve fibers in incident light,” Experientia 25, 1225–1226 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. J. Brakenhoff, P. Blom, and P. Barends, “Confocal scanning light microscopy with high- aperture immersion lenses,” J. Microsc. 117, 219–232 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. T. M. Van der Voort, G. J. Brakenhoff, J. A. C. Valkenburg, and N. Nanninga, “Design and use of a computer-controlled confocal microscope for biological applications,” Scanning 7, 66–78 (1985).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. Wilson, “Imaging properties and applications of scanning optical microscopes,” Appl. Phys. 22, 119–128 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. K. Hamilton and T. Wilson, “Three-dimensional surface measurement using the confocal scanning microscope,” Appl. Phys 27, 211–213 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    T. Wilson and C. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy, Academic, London (1984).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Carlsson, P. E. Danielson, R. Lenz, A. Liljeborg, L. Majlof, and N. Aslund, “Three-dimensional microscopy using a confocal laser scanning microscope,” Opt. Lett. 10, 53–55 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. Carlsson and N. Aslund, “Confocal imaging for 3-D digital microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3232–3238 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. G. White, W. B. Amos, and M. Fordham, “An evaluation of confocal versus conventional imaging of biological structures by fluorescence light microscopy,” J. Cell Biol. 105, 41–48 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    W. B. Amos, J. G. White, and M. Fordham, “Use of confocal imaging in the study of biological structure,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3239–3243 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Z. Young and G. Roberts, “A flying-spot microscope,” Nature 167, 231 (1951).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. D. Egger and M. Petráñ, New reflected-light microscope for viewing unstained brain and ganglion cells, Science 157, 305–307 (1967).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Petran, M. Hadravsky, J. Benes, R. Kucera, and A. Boyde, The tandem scanning reflected light microscope. Part I: the principle, and its design, Proc. Roy. Microsc. Soc. 20, 125–129 (1985).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Boyde, “The tandem scanning reflected light microscope. Part II: pre-Micro’84 applications at UCL,” Proc. Roy. Microsc. Soc. 20, 131–139 (1985).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Petran, M. Hadravsky, and A. Boyde, “The tandem scanning reflected light microscope,” Scanning 7, 97–108 (1985).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    G. Q. Xiao and G. S. Kino, “A real-time confocal scanning optical microscope,” Proc. 4th Int. Symp. on Optical and Optoelectronic App. Sci and Eng., The Hague (1987).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Draaijer and P. M. Houpt, “A real-time confocal laser scanning microscope (CSLM),” Scanning 10: 139–146 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    I. J. Cox and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Digital image processing of confocal images,” Image Vision Comput. 1, 52–56 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. Boyde, “Stereoscopic images in confocal (tandem scanning) microscopy,” Science 230, 1270–1271 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    R. W. Wijnaendts van Resandt, H. J. B. Marsman, R. Kaplan, J. Davoust, E. H. K. Stelzer, and R. Strieker, “Optical fluorescence microscopy in three dimensions: microtomoscopy,” J. Microsc 138, 29–34 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Boyde, “Color-coded stereo images from the tandem scanning reflected light microscope (TSRLM),” J. Microsc. 146, 137–142 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. Boyde, P. G. T Howell, and F. Franc, “Simple SEM stereophotogrammetric method for three-dimensional evaluation of features on flat substrates,” J. Microsc. 143, 257–264 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    H. F. Ross, “A new comparator for SEM stereophotogrammetry,” Scanning 8, 216–220 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    C. V. Howard, “Real 3-D measurements in microscopy using geometrical probes,” Microsc. Anal. 2, 15–17 (1987).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. J. Baddeley, C. V. Howard, A. Boyde, and S. A. Reid, “Three-dimensional analysis of the spatial distribution of particles using the tandem-scanning reflected light microscope,” Acta Stereol. Suppl. Il 6, 87–100 (1987).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Boyde
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anatomy and Developmental BiologyUniversity College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations