Heredity

  • Gabriel A. Kune
Part of the Developments in Oncology book series (DION, volume 78)

Abstract

The inherited aspects of ordinary (sporadic) colorectal adenomas and ordinary (sporadic) colorectal cancer, familial adenomatous polyposis syndromes (FAP) and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), will be discussed in this chapter. About 95% of all colorectal cancers are in the category of “ordinary” colorectal cancers, and FAP and HNPCC form about 5%. Those with a family history of colorectal cancer are known to be at a higher risk of developing this cancer than those who do not have a family history, and this has been assumed to be the main evidence for an inherited susceptibility to colorectal cancer.

Keywords

Adenocarcinoma Glutathione Adenoma Aspirin Folate 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aaltonen LA, Peltomäki P, Leach F, et al. Clues to the pathogenesis of familial colorectal cancer. Science 260:812–816, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aaltonen LA, Paltomäki P, Mecklin J-P, et al. Replication errors in benign and malignant tumors from hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer patients. Cancer Res 54:1645–1648, 1994a.Google Scholar
  3. Aaltonen LA, Sankila R, Mecklin JP, et al. A novel approach to estimate the proportion of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer of total colorectal cancer burden. Cancer Detect Prev 18:57–63, 1994b.Google Scholar
  4. Aitken J, Bain C, Ward M, et al. How accurate is self-reported family history of colorectal cancer? Am J Epidemiol 141:863–871, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashton-Rickart PG, Dunlop MG, Nakamura Y, et al. High frequency of APC loss in sporadic colorectal carcinoma due to breaks clustered in 5q21-q22. Oncogene 4:1169–1174, 1989.Google Scholar
  6. Bailey GS, Williams DE. Potential mechanism for food related carcinogens and anti-carcinogens. Food Technol 47:105–118, 1993.Google Scholar
  7. Baker JW, Gathwright JB Jr, Timmcke AE, et al. Colonoscopic screening of asymptomatic patients with a family history of colon cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 33:926–930, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baker SJ, Preisinger AC, Jessup JM, et al. p53 gene mutations occur in combination with 17p allelic deletions as late events in colorectal tumorigenesis. Cancer Res 50:7717–7722, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bale SJ, Chakravarti A, Strong LS. Aggregation of colon cancer in family data. Genetic Epidemiol 1:53–61, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bashir RM, Axelrad AM, Gupta PK, et al. Evaluation of screening colonoscopy in first degree relatives of colorectal cancer patients. Gastroenterology 108.A448, 1995.Google Scholar
  11. Bazzoli F, Fossi S, Sottili S, et al. The risk of adenomatous polyps in asymptomatic first-degree relatives of persons with colon cancer. Gastroenterology 109:783–788, 1995a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bazzoli F, Fossi S, Sottili S, et al. Need for total colonoscopy screening in asymptomatic subjects with simple primary family history of colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology 108:A448, 1995b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bedi A, Pasricha PJ, Akhtar AJ, et al. Inhibition of apoptosis during development of colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 55:1811–1816, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bell DA, Stephens EA, Castranio T, et al. Polyadenylation polymorphism in the acetyltransferose 1 gene (NAT1) increases risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 55:3537–3542, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bisgaard ML, Fenger K, Bulow S, et al. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP): frequency, penetrance and mutation rate. Hum Mutat 3:121–125, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bishop DT, Thomas HJW. The genetics of colorectal cancer. Cancer Surveys 4:585–604, 1990.Google Scholar
  17. Bodmer WF, Bailey CJ, Bodmer J, et al. Localization of the gene for familial adenomatous polyposis on chromosome 5. Nature 328:614–616, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bonelli L, Martines H, Conio M, et al. Family history of colorectal cancer as a risk factor for benign and malignant tumours of the large bowel. A case-control study. Int J Cancer 41:513–517, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bos JL, Fearon ER, Hamilton SR, et al. Prevalence of ras gene mutations in human colorectal cancers. Nature 327:293–297, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Boutron MC, Senesse P, Faivre J. Family history of cancer and the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Gastroenterology 108:A450, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brennan JA, Boyle JO, Koch WM, et al. Association between cigarette smoking and mutation of the p53 gene in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med 332:712–717, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bufill JA. Colorectal cancer: evidence for distinct genetic categories based on proximal or distal tumour location. Ann Int Med 113:779–788, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bulow S. Familial polyposis coli. Danish Med Bull 34:1–15, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Burt RW, Bishop T, Cannon LA, et al. Dominant inheritance of adenomatous colonic polyps and colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 312:1540–1544, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bussey HJR. Familial Polyposis Coli. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  26. Cannon-Albright LA, Skolnick MH, Bishop T, et al. Common inheritance of susceptibility to colonic adenomatous polyps and associated colorectal cancers. N Engl J Med 319:533–537, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Centonze S, Boeing H, Leoci C, et al. Familial risk of colorectal cancer in a low incidence area in Southern Italy. Eur J Epidemiol 9:26–32, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chenovix-Trench G, Young J, Coggan M, et al. Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms: susceptibility to colon cancer and age of onset. Carcinogenesis 16:1655–1657, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cravo ML, Mason JB, Dayal Y et al. Folate deficiency enhances the development of colonic neoplasia in dimethylhydrazine-treated rats. Cancer Res 52:5002–5006, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Curtis LJ, Bubb VJ, Gledhill S, et al. Loss of heterozygosity is not associated with mutation of the retained allele in sporadic colorectal cancer. Hum Mol Genet 3:443–446, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Duncan JL, Kyle J. Family incidence of carcinoma of the colon and rectum in north-east Scotland. Gut 23:169–171, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fearon ER, Cho KR, Nigro JM, et al. Identification of a chromosome 18q gene that is altered in colorectal cancers. Science 247:49–56, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Feinberg AP, Gehrke CW, Kuo KC, et al. Reduced genomic 5-methylcytosine content in human colonic neoplasia. Cancer Res 48:1159–1161, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Feinberg AP, Vogelstein B. Hypomethylation distinguishes genes of some human cancers from their normal counterparts. Nature 301:89–92, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fettman MJ, Butler RN, McMichael AJ, et al. Metabolic phenotypes and colorectal neoplasia. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 6:81–89, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fisher G, Armstrong B. Familial colorectal cancer and the screening of family members. Med J Aust 150:22–25, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Forrester K, Amoguera C, Han K, et al. Detection of high incidence of K-ras oncogenes during human tumorigenesis. Nature 327:298–303, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Froggatt NJ, Koch J, Davies R, et al. Genetic linkage analysis in hereditary non-polypsis colon cancer syndrome. J Med Genetics 32:352–357, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fuchs CS, Giovannucci EL, Colditz GA, et al. A prospective study of family history and the risk of colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 331:1669–1674, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gerdes H, Gillin JS, Zimbalist E, et al. Expansion of the epithelial cell proliferative compartment and frequency of adenomatous polyps of the colon correlate with the strength of the family history of colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 53:279–282,1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gillin JS, Winawer SJ, Lipkin M. Prevalence of adenomas detected by colonoscopy in asymptomatic individuals in cancer-prone families. Gastroenterology 86:1088, 1984.Google Scholar
  42. Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Ascherio A, et al. Alcohol, low-methionine-low-folate diets, and risk of colon cancer in men. J Natl Cancer Inst 87:265–273, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Goelz SE, Vogelstein B, Hamilton SR, et al. Hypomethylation of DNA from benign and malignant human colon neoplasms. Science 228:187–190, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Goh H-S, Chan C-S, Khine K, et al. p53 and behaviour of colorectal cancer. Lancet 344:233–234, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Goldgar DE, Easton DF, Cannon-Albright LA, et al. Systematic population-based assessment of cancer risk in first-degree relatives of cancer probands. J Natl Cancer Inst 86:1600–1608, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Goyette MC, Cho K, Fasching CL, et al. Progression of colorectal cancer is associated with multiple tumor suppressor gene defects but inhibition of tumorigenicity is accomplished by connection of any single defect via chromosome transfer. Mol Cell Biol 12:1387–1395, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Groden J, Thliveris A, Samowitz W, et al. Indentification and characterization of the familial adenomatous polyposis coli gene. Cell 66:589–600, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gryska PV, Cohen AM. Screening asymptomatic patients at high risk for colon cancer with full colonoscopy. Dis Colon Rectum 30:18–20, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Guillem JG, Forde KA, Treat MR, et al. Colonoscopic screening for neoplasms in asymptomatic first degree relatives of colon cancer patients. Dis Colon Rectum 35:523–529, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Guillem JG, Neugut AI, Forde KA, et al. Colonie neoplasms in asymptomatic first-degree relatives of colon cancer patients. Am J Gastroenterol 83:271–273, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hague A, Moorghen M, Hicks D, et al. BCL-2 expression in human colorectal adenomas and carcinoids. Oncogene 9:3367–3370, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Harris CC, Hollstein M. Clinical implications of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. N Engl J Med 329:1318–1327, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hasegawa H, Ueda M, Furukawa K, et al. p53 gene mutations in early colorectal carcinoma, de novo vs adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Int J Cancer 64:47–51, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Herrera L, Kakati S, Gibas L, et al. Gardner syndrome in a man with an interstitial deletion of 5q. Am J Med Genet 25:473–476, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ilett KF, David BM, Detchon P, et al. Acetylation phenotype in colorectal carcinoma. Cancer Res 47:1466–1469, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. lonov Y, Peinado MA, Malkhosyan S, et al. Ubiquitous somatic mutations in simple repeated sequences reveal a new mechanism for colonic carcinogenesis. Nature 363:558–561, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Jass JR. Evolution of hereditary bowel cancer. Mutation Res 290:13–25, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jass JR, Smyrk TC, Stewart SM, et al. Pathology of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. Anticancer Res 14:1631–1634, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Jass JR, Stewart SM. Evolution of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. Gut 33:783–786, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jass JR, Stewart SM, Schroeder D, et al. Screening for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer in New Zealand. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 4:523–527, 1992.Google Scholar
  61. Kadlubar FF, Butler MA, Kaderlik KR, et al. Polymorphisms for aromatic amine metabolism in humans: relevance for human carcinogenesis. Environ Health Perspect 98:69–74, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kastrinakis WV, Ramchurren N, Rieger KM, at al. Increased incidence of p53 mutations is associated with hepatic metastasis in colorectal neoplastic progression. Oncogene 11:647–652, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Kato I, Tominaga S, Ikari A. A case-control study of male colorectal cancer in the Aichi Prefecture, Japan: with special reference to occupational activity level, drinking habits and family history. Jpn J Cancer Res 81:115–121,1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kaur J, Srivastava A, Ralhan R. Overexpression of p53 protein in betel and tobacco-related human oral dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma in India. Int J Cancer 58:340–345, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kee F, Collins BJ. How prevalent is cancer family syndrome? Gut 32:509–512, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kim H, Jen J, Vogelstein B, Hamilton SR. Clinical and pathological characteristics of sporadic colorectal carcinomas with DNA replication errors in microsatellite sequences. Am J Pathol 145:148–156, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kinzler KW, Nilbert MC, Su L-K, et al. Identification of FAP locus genes from chromosome 5q21. Science 253:661–665, 1991b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kinzler KW, Nilbert MC, Vogelstein B, et al. Identification of a gene located at chromosome 5q21 that is mutated in colorectal cancers. Science 251:1366–1370,1991a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Knudson AG. Hereditary cancer, oncogenes and antioncogenes. Cancer Res 45:1437–1443, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Knudson AG, Meadows AT, Nichols WW, et al. Chromosomal deletion and retinoblastoma. New Engl J Med 295:1120–1123, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kohonen-Corish MR, Doe WF, StJohn DJ, et al. Chromosome Zp linkage analysis in hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 10:108–109, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kune GA, Kune S, Field B, et al. Survival in patients with large bowel cancer: a population-based investigation from the Melbourne colorectal cancer study. Dis Colon Rectum 33:938–946, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kune GA, Kune S, Read A, et al. Colorectal polyps, diet, alcohol and family history of colorectal cancer: a case-control study. Nutr Cancer 16:25–30,1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kune GA, Kune S, Watson LF. Attributable risk for diet, alcohol and family history in the Melbourne colorectal cancer study. Nutr Cancer 18:231–235, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kune GA, Kune S, Watson LF. The Melbourne colorectal cancer study. Characterization of patients with a family history of colorectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 30:600–606, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kune GA, Kune S, Watson LF. The role of heredity in the etiology of large bowel cancer. Data from the Melbourne colorectal cancer study. World J Surg 13:124–131, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kune GA, Serjeantson S. HLA and colorectal cancer. Med J Aust 2:199, 1984.Google Scholar
  78. Kune S, Kune GA, Watson LF. Case-control study of alcoholic beverages as aetiological factors: the Melbourne colorectal cancer study. Nutr Cancer 9:43–56, 1987b.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kune S, Kune GA, Watson LF. Case-control study of dietary etiological factors: the Melbourne colorectal cancer study. Nutr Cancer 9:21–42, 1987a.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kune S, Kune GA, Watson LF. The Melbourne colorectal cancer study. Incidence findings by age, sex, site, migrants and religion. Int J Epidemiol 15:483–493, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lang NP, Butler MA, Massengill J, et al. Rapid metabolic phenotypes for a ce ty transferase and cytochrome P4501A2 and putative exposure to food-borne heterocylic amines increase the risk for colorectal cancer or polyps. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 3:675–682, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Lang NP, Chu DZL, Hunter CF, et al. Role of aromatic amine acetyltransferase in human colorectal cancer. Arch Surg 121:1259–1261,1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lazarus P, Garewal HS, Sciubba J, et al. A low incidence of p53 mutations in pre-malignant lesions of the oral cavity from non-tobacco users. Int J Cancer 60:458–463, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Leppert M, Dobbs M, Scambler P, et al. The gene for familial polyposis coli maps to the long arm of chromosome 5. Science 238:1411–1413, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Longo WE, Vernava AM, Wade TP, et al. Chromosome 17p allelic loss in colorectal carcinoma. Clinical significance. Arch Surg 130:585–588, 1995.Google Scholar
  86. Lovett E. Family studies in cancer of the colon and rectum. Br J Surg 63:13–18, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lynch HT, Krush AJ. Cancer Family G revisited. Cancer 27:1505–1511, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lynch HT, Lanspa SJ, Smyrk TC, et al. Historical and natural cancer history facets of the Lynch Syndromes. In: Hereditary Colorectal Cancer. Utsunomiya J and Lynch HT (eds), Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp 17–25, 1990.Google Scholar
  89. Lynch HT, Smyrk TC, Watson P, et al. Genetics, natural history, tumor spectrum, and pathology of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer: an updated review. Gastroenterology 104:1535–1549, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Maire P, Morichau-Beuchant J, Drucker J, et al. Prevalence familiale du cancer du colon et du rectum: resultats d’une enquete “cas-temoins” de 3 ans. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 8:22–27, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Marx J. How p53 suppresses cell growth. Science 262:1644–1645, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. McConnell JC, Nizin JS, Slade MS. Colonoscopy in patients with a primary family history of colon cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 33:105–107,1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Mecklin J-P. Frequency of hereditary colorectal carcinoma. Gastroenterology 93:1021–1025, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Mecklin J-P, Järvinen HJ. Tumor spectrum in cancer family syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer). Cancer 68:1109–1112, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mecklin J-P, Järvinen HJ, Aukee S, et al. Screening for colorectal carcinoma in cancer family syndrome kindreds. Scand J Gastroenterol 22:449–453, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Mecklin J-P, Järvinen HJ, Hakkiluoto A, et al. Frequency of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. A prospective multicenter study in Finland. Dis Colon Rectum 38:588–593, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Mecklin J-P, Svendsen LB, Peltomäki P, et al. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Scan J Gastroenterol 29:673–677, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Meier R, Christ A, Rausch T, et al. Screening by colonoscopy in first degree relatives of hereditary colon cancer patients is effective without produciung high costs. Gastroenterology 106:A413, 1994.Google Scholar
  99. Meling GI, Lothe R, Borresen AL, et al. Right-sided and left-sided colorectal cancers have alternative genetic changes. Gut 35:A32, 1994 (Abstract 141).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Minchin RF, Kadlubar FF, Ilett KF. Role of acetylation in colorectal cancer. Mutation Res 290:35–42,1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Müller H, Scott R. Hereditary conditions in which a loss of heterozygosity may be important. Mut Res 284:15–24, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Nicolaides NC, Papadopoulos H, Liu B, et al. Mutations of two PMS homologues in hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer. Nature 371:75–80, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Nishisho I, Nakamura Y, Miyoshi Y, et al. Mutation of chromosome 5q21 genes in FAP and colorectal cancer patients. Science 253:665–669, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Orrom WJ, Brzezinski WS, Wiens EW. Heredity and colorectal cancer. A prospective community-based endoscopic study. Dis Colon Rectum 33:490–493, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Papadopoulos N, Nicolaides NC, Wei Y-F, et al. Mutation of a mutL homolog in hereditary colon cancer. Science 261:1625–1629, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Park JG, Han HJ, Kang MS, et al. Presymptomatic diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis coli. Dis Colon Rectum 37:700–707, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Peltomäki P, Aaltonen LA, Sistonen P, et al. Genetic mapping of a locus predisposing to human colorectal cancer. Science 260:810–816, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Percesepe A, Anti M, Marra G, et al. Role of clinical criteria in the diagnosis of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Results of a multivariate analysis. Int J Cancer 58:799–802, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ponz de Leon M, Antonioli A, Ascari A, et al. Incidence and familial occurrence of colorectal cancer and polyps in a health-care district in Northern Italy. Cancer 60:2848–2859, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ponz de Leon M, Antonioli A, Bonilauri S, et al. Incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in a health care district: experience at one year of registration. Gut 26:-A1129–1130, 1985 (Abstract P109).Google Scholar
  111. Ponz de Leon M, Sassatelli R, Benatti P, et al. Identification of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer in the general population. The 6-year experience of a population-based registry. Cancer 71:3493–3501, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Ponz de Leon M, Sassatelli R, Sacchetti C, et al. Familial aggregation of tumours in the three-year experience of a population-based colorectal cancer registry. Cancer Res 49:4344–4348, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Porte H, Chastre E, Prevot S, et al. Neoplastic progression of human colorectal cancer is associated with overexpression of the stromelysin-3 and BM-40/SPARC genes. Int J Cancer 64:70–75, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Potter JD, Slattery ML, Bostick RM, et al. Colon cancer: a review of the epidemiology. Epidemiol Rev 15:499–545, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Powell SM, Petersen GM, Krush AJ et al. Molecular diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis. N Engl J Med 329:1982–1987, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Purdie CA, Piris J, Bird CC, et al. 17q allele loss is associated with lymph node metastases in locally aggressive human colorectal cancer. J Path 175:297–302, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Riegler G, Savastano A, Gagliardi G, et al. Hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer: prevalence in 115 consecutive colorectal cancer patients. Gastroenterology 106:A433, 1994.Google Scholar
  118. Riegler G, Savastano A, Gagliardi G, et al. Prevalence of hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) in South Italy: a prospective investigation. Gastroenterology 108:A528, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Rozen P, Fireman Z, Figer A, et al. Family history of colorectal cancer as a marker of potential malignancy within a screening program. Cancer 60:248–254, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Rozen P, Fireman Z, Terdiman R, et al. Selective screening for colorectal tumors in the Tel-Aviv area: relevance of epidemiology and family history. Cancer 47:827–831, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Scott RJ, Müller H. Familial and genetic aspects of colorectal carcinogenesis. Eur J Cancer 29A:2163–2167, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Seidegård J, Pero RW, Markowitz M, et al. Isozyme(s) of glutathione transferase (class mu) as a marker for the susceptibility to lung cancer: a follow up study. Carcinogenesis 11:33–36, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Sellers TA, Kushi LH, Potter JD. Can dietary intake patterns account for the familial aggregation of disease? Evidence from adult siblings living apart. Genetic Epidemiol 8:105–112, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Shibuta K, Nakashima T, Abe M, et al. Molecular genotyping for N-acetylation polymorphism in Japanese patients with colorectal cancer. Cancer 74:3108–3112, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Sinicrope FA, Cleary KR, Levin B. Expression of BCL-2 proto oncogene in human colorectal carcinoma. Gastroenterology 106:A442,1994.Google Scholar
  126. Slattery ML, Kerber RA. Family history of cancer and colon cancer risk: the Utah population database. J Natl Cancer inst 86:1618–1626, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Smith MEF, Bodmer WF, Bodmer JG. Selective loss of HLA-A.B.C locus products in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Lancet 1:823–824, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Solomon E, Voss R, Hall V, et al. Chromosome 5 allele loss in human colorectal carcinomas. Nature 328:616–619, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sondergaard JO, Bülow S, Lynge E. Cancer incidence among parents of patients with colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer 47:202–206, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Sondergaard JO, Rasmussen MS, Videbaek H, et al. Mandibular osteomas in sporadic colorectal carcinoma. A genetic marker. Scand J Gastroenterol 28:23–24, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. St. John DJB, McDermott FT, Hopper JL, et al. Cancer risk in relatives of patients with common colorectal cancer. Ann Intern Med 118:785–790, 1993.Google Scholar
  132. Stephenson BM, Finan PJ, Gascoyne J, et al. Frequency of familial colorectal cancer. Br J Surg 78:1162–1166, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Stephenson BM, Murday VA, Finan PA, et al. Feasibility of a family based screening for colorectal neoplasia: experience in one general surgical practice. Gut 34:96–100, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Stevenson GW, Hernandez C. Single-visit screening and treatment of first-degree relatives: colon cancer pilot study. Dis Colon Rectum 34:1120–1124, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Terasaki PI, Perdue ST, Mickey MR. HLA frequencies in cancer: a second study. In: Genetics of Human Cancer. Mulvihill JJ, Miller RW, Fraumeni JF Jr (eds). New York: Raven Press, 1977, pp 321–328.Google Scholar
  136. Thibodeau SN, Bren G, Schaid D. Microsatellite instability in cancer of the proximal colon. Science 260:816–819, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Turesky RJ, Lang N, Butler MA et al. Metabolic activation of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines by human liver and colon. Carcinogenesis 12:1417–1422, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. van der Luijt R, Khan PM, Vasen H et al. Rapid detection of translation-terminating mutations at the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene by direct protein truncation test. Genomics 20:1–4, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. van-de-Water NS, Jeevaratnam P, Browett PJ, et al. Direct mutational analysis in a family with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. Aust NZ J Med 24:682–686, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Vasen HFA, Mecklin J-P, Khan PM, et al. Hereditary non-polyposis colectal cancer. Lancet 338:877, 1991a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Vasen HFA, Mecklin J-P, Khan PM, Lynch HT. The International Collaborative Group on Hereditary Non-polyposis Colorectal Cancer (ICG-HNPCC). Dis Colon Rectum 34:424–425, 1991b.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Vogelstein B, Fearon ER, Hamilton SR, et al. Genetic alterations during colorectal tumor development. N Engl J Med 319:525–532, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Vogelstein B, Fearon ER, Kern SE, et al. Allelotype of colorectal carcinomas. Science 244:207–211, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Waifen E, Dizik M, Stender M, et al. Rapid appearance of hypomethylated DNA in livers of rats fed cancer-promoting, methyl-deficient diets. Cancer Res 49:4094–4097, 1989.Google Scholar
  145. Walpole IR, Kool D, Edkins T, et al. Genetic counselling and gene mutation analysis in familial adenomatous polytposis in Western Australia. Med J Aust 162:464–467, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Warthin AS. Heredity with reference to carcinoma. Arch Intern Med 12:546–555, 1913.Google Scholar
  147. Weisburger JH, Jones RC. Prevention of formation of important mutagens/carcinogens in the human food chain. Basic Life Sci 52:105–118, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Westlake PJ, Bryant HE, Huchcroft SA, et al. Frequency of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer in Southern Alberta. Dig Dis Sci 36:1441–1447, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Winawer SJ, Zauber AG, Bishop DT, et al. Family history of colorectal cancer as a predictor of adenomas at follow up colonoscopy. Gastroenterology 104:A462, 1993.Google Scholar
  150. Zauber AG, Winawer SJ, Bishop DT, et al. Right-sided adenomas associated with increased familial risk for colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology 106:A455, 1994.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriel A. Kune
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.University of MelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Melbourne Colorectal Cancer StudyAustralia

Personalised recommendations