Number of Children, Age At First Birth, Hormones
Early clues that colorectal cancer is in some way related to parity were that higher than expected rates of colorectal cancer were noted in nuns as well as in single women compared to married women (Fraumeni et al 1969; Ernster et al 1979).
KeywordsSugar Estrogen Adenoma Polysaccharide Folate
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Burch JC, Byrd BF, Vaughan WK. The effects of long-term estrogen administration to women following hysterectomy. Front Hormone Res 3:208–214, 1975.Google Scholar
- Fernandez E, La Vecchia C, D’Avanzo B, et al. Oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy and the risk of colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer (to be published in 1996).Google Scholar
- Giles GG, Armstrong BK, Smith LR. Cancer in Australia 1982. Melbourne, Australia: National Cancer Statistics 76–77, 1987.Google Scholar
- Newcomb PA, Storer BE, Marcus PM. Cancer of the large bowel in relation to use of hormone replacement therapy. Am J Epidemiol 136:958, 1992.Google Scholar
- Olsen J, Olsen JS, Kronborg O. Risk factors for cancers and adenomas of the large intestine. An analysis of food items and reproductive factors. Cancer J 7:103–107, 1994.Google Scholar
- Probert CJS, Emmett PM, Heaton KW. Some determinants of whole-gut transit time: a population-based study. Quart J Med 88:311–315, 1995.Google Scholar
- Troisi R, Schairer C, Chow W-H et al. A prospective study of reproductive factors, exogenous hormone use and risk of colorectal cancer. Am J Epidemiol 142:570, 1995.Google Scholar