Food choice, mood and mental performance: some examples and some mechanisms

  • Peter J. Rogers


It is well established that diet can influence mood and mental performance. Indeed, certain variations in nutritional status can have very marked effects on mental functioning (Table 9.1). This is demonstrated by, for example, the consequences of chronic and severe food restriction (Smart, 1993), thiamin deficiency (Kanarek and Marks-Kaufman, 1991), and iron deficiency (Pollitt, 1987). Acute effects of food and fluid ingestion have also been described, and this area together with an examination of interrelationships between mood and eating is the main concern of the present review. Influences of mood on eating (and drinking) as well as effects of food on mood are considered. The material covered has been included to provide examples of the main findings of this research, and to illustrate certain methodological issues. Possible mechanisms underlying these diet-behaviour relationships are also examined. The relevant literature, however, is very large and cannot be covered fully in a single chapter. Therefore, some subjects such as the effects of alcohol (see Finnigan and Hammersley, 1992 for a review) are not discussed in detail.


Food Choice Mental Performance Dietary Restraint Seasonal Affective Disorder Food Craving 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Baeyens, F., Eelen, P., Van den Bergy, O. and Crombez, G. (1990) Flavour-flavour andcolour-flavour conditioning in humans. Learning and Motivation 21, 434–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Benton, D. and Sargent, J. (1992) Breakfast, blood glucose and memory. Biological and Psychology 33, 207–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Birch, L.L., McPhee, L., Sullivan, S. and Johnson, S. (1989) Conditioned meal initiation in young children. Appetite 13,105–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Birch, L.L., McPhee, L., Steinberg, L. and Sullivan, S. (1990) Conditioned flavour preferences in young children. Physiology and Behavior 47, 501–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blass, E.M. (1987) Opioids, sweets and a mechanism for positive affect: Broad motivational implications. In Sweetness, pp. 115–126 [J. Dobbing, ed.]. Berlin, Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  6. Blass, E.M. (1991) Suckling: Opioid and nonopioid processes in mother-infant bonding. In Chemical Senses: Volume 4, Appetite and Nutrition, pp. 283–302 (M.I. Friedman, M.G. Tordoff, M.R. Kare, eds). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  7. Booth, D.A. (1978) Acquired behaviour controlling energy intake and output. PsychiatricClinics of North America 1, 545–579.Google Scholar
  8. Booth, D.A. (1994) Psychology of Nutrition. London: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  9. Booth, D.A., Mather, P. and Fuller, J. (1982) Starch content of ordinary foods associatively conditions human appetite and satiation, indexed by intake and eating pleasantness of starch-paired flavours. Appetite 3,163–184.Google Scholar
  10. Brody, S. and Wolitzky, D.L. (1983) Lack of mood changes following sucrose loading. Psychosomatics 24,155–162.Google Scholar
  11. Bruce, M., Scott, N., Shine, P. and Lader, M. (1991) Caffeine withdrawal: a contrast of withdrawal symptoms in normal subjects who have abstained from caffeine for 24 hours and for 7 days. Journal of Psychopharmacology 5,129–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brzezinski, A.A., Wurtman, J.J., Wurtman, R.J., Gleason, R., Greenfield, J. and Nader, T. (1990) d-Fenfluramine suppresses the increased calorie and carbohydrate intakes and improves the mood of women with premenstrual depression. Obstetrics and Gynecology 76, 296–301.Google Scholar
  13. Christensen, L. and Redig, C. (1993) Effect of meal composition on mood. Behavioral Neuroscience 107, 346–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cines, B.M. and Rozin, R. (1982) Some aspects of liking for hot coffee and coffee flavour. Appetite 3, 23–34.Google Scholar
  15. Cockcroft, V. (1993) Chocolate on the brain. The Biochemist Apr/May, 14–16.Google Scholar
  16. Cowen, P.J., Anderson, I.M. and Fairburn, C.G. (1992) Neurochemical effects of dieting: Relevance to changes in eating and affective disorders. In The Biology of Feast and Famine: Relevance to Eating Disorders, pp. 269–284. (G.H. Anderson and S.H. Kennedy, eds). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  17. Craig, A., Baer, K. and Diekmann, A. (1981) The effects of lunch on sensory-perceptual functioning in man. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 49, 105–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. de Castro, J.M. (1987) Macronutrient relationships with meal patterns and mood in the spontaneous feeding behaviour of humans. Physiology and Behavior 39, 561–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Deijen, J.M., Heemstra, M.L. and Orlebeke, J.F., (1989) Dietary effects on mood and performance. Journal of Psychiatric Research 23, 275–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Department of Health (1992) Health of the Nation. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  21. Dickie, N.H. and Bender, A.E. (1982) Breakfast and performance in schoolchildren. British Journal of Nutrition 48, 483–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Drewnowski, A. (1992) Food preferences and the opioid peptide system. Trends in Food Science and Technology 3, 97–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Drewnowski, A., Krahn, D.D., Demitrack, M.A., Nairn, K. and Gosnell, B.A. (1992a) Taste responses and preferences for sweet high-fat foods: evidence for opioid involvement. Physiology and Behavior 51, 371–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Drewnowski, A., Kurth, C., Holden-Wiltse, J. and Saari, J. (1992b) Food preferences in human obesity: carbohydrate versus fats. Appetite 18, 207–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Editor. (1957) Physiologic results of breakfast habits. Nutrition Reviews 15,196–198.Google Scholar
  26. Fernstrom, J.D. (1994) Dietary amino acids and brain function. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 94, 71–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fernstrom, M.H., Krowinsk, R.L. and Kupfer, D.J. (1987) Appetite and food preference in depression: effects of imipramine treatment. Biological Psychiatry 22, 529–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Finnigan, F. and Hammersley, R. (1992) The effects of alcohol on performance. In Handbook of Human Performance, Volume 2, Health and Performance, pp. 73–126 (A.P. Smith and D.M. Jones, eds). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  29. French, S.J., Murray, B., Rumsey, R.D.E., Fadzlin, R. and Read, N.W. (1995) Adapation to a high-fat diets: effect on eating behaviour and plasma cholecystokinin. British Journal of Nutrition 73, 179–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fullerton, D.T., Getto, C.J., Swift, W.J. and Carlson, I.H. (1985) Sugar, opioids and binge eating. Brain Research Bulletin 14, 673–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Garcia, J., Hankins, W.G. and Rusiniak, K.W. (1974) Behavioural regulation of the milieu interne in man and rat. Science 185, 824–831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gardner, M.L.G. (1984) Intestinal assimilation of intact peptides and proteins from the diet a neglected field? Biological Review 59, 289–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gilbert, R.M. (1984) Caffeine consumption. In The Methylxanthine Beverages and Foods: Chemistry, Consumption and Health, pp. 185–214 (G.A. Spiller, ed.). New York: Alan R. Liss.Google Scholar
  34. Goodwin, G.M., Cowne, P.J., Fairburn, C.G., Parry-Billings, M., Calder, P.C. and Newsholme, E.A. (1990) Plasma concentrations of tryptophan and dieting. British Medical Journal 300, 1499–1500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Goodwin, G.M., Fairburn, C.G. and Cowne, P.J. (1987) Dieting changes serotonergic function in women, not men: implications for the aetiology of anorexia nervosa? Psychological Medicine 17, 839–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Green, M.W. and Rogers, P.J. (1995) Impaired cognitive functioning in dieters during dieting. Psychological Medicine , 25,1003–1010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Green, M.W., Rogers, P.J., Elliman, N.A. and Gatenby, S.J. (1994) Impairment of cognitive performance associated with dieting and high levels of dietary restraint. Physiology and Behavior 55, 447–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Green, M.W., Elliman, N.A. and Rogers, P.J. (1995) Lack of effect of short-term fasting on cognitive function. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 29, 245–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Griffiths, R.R. and Woodson, P.P. (1988) Caffeine physical dependence: a review of human and laboratory animal studies. Psychopharmacology 94, 437–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Griffiths, R.R. and Mumford, G.K. (1995) Caffeine—A drug of abuse? In Psychopharmacology: The Fourth Generation of Progress, pp. 1699–1713 (F.E. Bloom and D.J. Kupfer, eds). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  41. Hassmén, P., Blomstrand, E., Ekblom, B. and Newsholme, E.A. (1994) Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during 30-km competitive run: Mood and cognitive performance. Nutrition 10, 405–410.Google Scholar
  42. Hill A.J. and Heaton-Brown, L. (1995) The experience of food craving: A prospective study in healthy women. Journal of Psychosomatic Research , 38, 801–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hill, A.J., Weaver, C.F.L. and Blundell, J.E. (1991) Food craving, dietary restraint and mood. Appetite 17,187–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Höfer, I. and Bättig, K. (1994) Cardiovascular, behavioural, and subjective effects of caffeine under field conditions. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 48, 899–908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hrboticky, K., Leiter, L.A. and Anderson, G.H. (1985) Effects of L-tryptophan on short term food intake in lean men. Nutrition Research 5, 595–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. James, J.E. (1991) Caffeine and Health. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  47. Jarvis, M. (1993) Does caffeine intake enhance absolute levels of cognitive performance? Psychopharmacology 110, 45–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kanarek, R.B. and Marks-Kaufman, R. (1991) Nutrition and Behavior: New Perspectives. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  49. Kaplan, J.R., Shively, C.A., Fontenot, M.B., Morgan, T.M., Howell, S.M., Manuck, S.B., Muldoon, M.F. and Mann, J.J. (1994) Demonstration of an association among dietary cholesterol, central serotonergic activity, and social behaviour in monkeys. Psychosomatic Medicine 56, 479–484.Google Scholar
  50. Kern, D.L., McPhee, L., Fisher, J., Johnson, S. and Birch, L.L. (1993) The postingestive consequences of fat condition preferences for flavours associated with high dietary fat. Physiology and Behavior 54, 71–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Keys, A., Brozek, J., Henschel, A., Mickelsen, O. and Taylor, H.F. (1950) The Biology of Human Starvation, Vols 1 and 2. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  52. Kirkham, T.C. and Cooper, S.J. (1991) Opioid peptides in relation to the treatment of obesity and bulimia. In Peptides: A Target for New Drug Development, pp. 28–44 (S.R. Bloom and G. Burnstock, eds). London: IBC.Google Scholar
  53. Krauchi, K. and Wirz-Justice, A. (1988) The four seasons: food intake frequency in seasonal affective disorder in the course of a year. Psychiatric Research 25, 232–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Leathwood, P.D. (1987) Tryptophan availability and serotonin synthesis. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 46,143–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Liddle, R.A., Goldfine, I.D. and Williams, J.A. (1983) Bioassy of circulating CCK in rat and human plasma. Gastroenterology 84, 1231–1236.Google Scholar
  56. Lieberman, H.R., Corkin, S., Spring, B.J., Growden, J.H. and Wurtman, R.J. (1983) Mood, performance, and pain sensitivity: Changes induced by food constituents. Journal of Psychiatric Research 17,135–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lieberman, H., Wurtman, J. and Chew, B. (1986a) Changes in mood after carbohydrate consumption among obese individuals. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 772–778.Google Scholar
  58. Lieberman, H.R., Caballero, B. and Finer, N. (1986b) The composition of lunch determines plasma tryptophan rations in humans. Journal of Neural Transmission 65, 211–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lloyd, H.M. and Rogers, P.J. (1994) Acute effects of breakfasts of differing fat and carbohydrate content on morning mood and cognitive performance. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 53, 239A.Google Scholar
  60. Lloyd, H.M., Green, M.W. and Rogers, P.J. (1994) Mood and cognitive performance effects of isocaloric lunches differing in fat and carbohydrate content. Physiology and Behavior 56, 51–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Macdiarmid, J.I. and Hetherington, M.M. (1995) Mood modulation by food: An exploration of affect and cravings in ‘chocolate addicts’. British Journal of Psychology 34,129–138.Google Scholar
  62. Maes, M. and Meltzer, H.Y. (1995) The serotonin hypothesis of major depression. In Psychopharmacology: The Fourth Generation of Progress, pp. 933–944 (F.E. Bloom and D.J. Kupfer, eds). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  63. Max, B. (1989) This and that: chocolate addiction, the dual pharmacogenetics of asparagus eaters and the arithmetic of freedom. Trends in Pharmacological Science 10, 390–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Michener, W. and Rozin, P. (1994) Pharmacological versus sensory factors in the satiation of chocolate craving. Physiology and Behavior 56, 419–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Møller, S.E. (1992) Serotonin, carbohydrates, and atypical depression. Pharmacology and Toxicology 71 (Supplement 1), 61–71.Google Scholar
  66. Morley, J.E., Levine, A.S., Yamada, T., Gebhard, R.L., Prigge, W.F., Shafer, R.B., Goetz, F.C. and Silvis, S.E. (1983) Effect of exorphins on gastrointestinal function, hormonal release and appetite. Gastroenterology 84,1517–1523.Google Scholar
  67. Muldoon, M.F., Manuck, S.B. and Matthews, K.A. (1991) Mortality experience in cholesterol reduction trials. New England Journal of Medicine 324, 922–923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mumford, G.K., Evans, S.M., Kaminski, B.J., Preston, K.L., Sannerud, C.A., Silverman, K. and Griffiths, R.R. (1994) Dicriminative stimulus and subjective effects of theobromine and caffeine in humans. Psychopharmacology 115, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Newsholme, E.A., Blomstrand, E. and Ekblom, B. (1992) Physical and mental fatigue: Metabolic mechanisms and importance of plasma amino acids. British Medical Bulletin 48, 477–495.Google Scholar
  70. O’Brien, C.P., Eckardt, M.J. and Linnoila, V.M. (1995) Pharmacotherapy of alcoholism. In Psychopharmacology: The Fourth Generation of Progress, pp. 1745–1755 (F.E. Bloom and D.J. Kupfer, eds). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  71. O’Rouke, D., Wurtman, J.J., Wurtman, R.J., Chebli, R. and Gleason, R. (1989) Treatment of seasonal depression with d-fenfluramine. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 50, 343–347.Google Scholar
  72. Pijl, H., Koppeschaar, H.P.F., Cohen, A.F., Iestra, J.A., Schoemaker, H.C., Frölich, M., Onkenhout, W. and Meinders, A.E. (1993) Evidence for brain serotonin-mediated control of carbohydrate consumption in normal weight and obese humans. International Journal of Obesity 17, 513–520.Google Scholar
  73. Pivonka, E.E.A. and Grunewald, K.K. (1990) Aspartame- or sugar-sweetened beverages: Effects on mood in young women. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 90, 250–254.Google Scholar
  74. Pollitt, E. (1987) Effects of iron deficiency on mental development: Methodological considerations and substantive findings. In Nutritional Anthropology, pp. 225–254 [F.E. Johnson, ed.]. New York: Alan R. Liss.Google Scholar
  75. Pollitt, E., Leibel, R.L. and Greenfield, D. (1981) Brief fasting, stress, and cognition in children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 34,1526–1533.Google Scholar
  76. Pollitt, E., Lewis, N.L., Garza, C. and Shulman, R.J. (1983) Fasting and cognitive function. Journal of Psychiatric Research 17,169–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Richardson, N.J., Rogers, P.J., Elliman, N.A. and O’Dell, R.J. (1995) Mood and performance effects of caffeine in relation to acute and chronic caffeine deprivation. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior , 52, 313–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Robbins, T.W. and Fray, P.J (1980) Stress-induced eating: fact, fiction or misunderstanding? Appetite 1,103–133.Google Scholar
  79. Robinson, J. and Ferguson, A. (1992) Food sensitivity and the nervous system: hyperactivity, addiction and criminal behaviour. Nutrition Research Reviews 5, 203–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rodin, J., Mancuso, J., Granger, J. and Nelbach, E. (1991) Food cravings in relation to body mass index, restraint and estradiol levels: a repeated measures study in healthy women. Appetite 17, 177–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rogers, P.J. (1990) Why a palatability construct is needed. Appetite 14,167–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rogers, R.J. (1993) The experimental investigation of human eating behaviour. In Human Psychopharmacology: Measures and Methods, Volume 4, pp. 123–142 (I. Hindmarch and P.D. Stonier, eds). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  83. Rogers, P.J. (1994) Mechanisms of moreishness and food craving. In Pleasure: the Politics and the Reality, pp. 38–49 (D.M. Warburton, ed.). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  84. Rogers, P.J. and Green, M.W. (1993) Dieting, dietary restraint and cognitive performance. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 32, 113–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rogers, P.J. and Jas, P. (1994) Menstrual cycle effects on mood, eating and food choice. Appetite 23, 289.Google Scholar
  86. Rogers, P.J. and Lloyd, H.M. (1994) Nutrition and mental performance. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 53, 443–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rogers, P.J. and Richardson, N.J. (1993) Why do we like drinks that contain caffeine? Trends in Food Science and Technology 4,108–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rogers, P.J., Edwards, S., Green, M.W. and Jas, P. (1992) Nutritional influences on mood and cognitive performance: The menstrual cycle, caffeine and dieting. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 51, 343–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rogers, P.J., Anderson, A.O., Finch, G.M., Jas, P. and Gatenby, S.J (1994a) Relationships between food craving and anticipatory salivation, eating patterns, mood and body weight in women and men. Appetite 23, 319.Google Scholar
  90. Rogers, P.J., Green, M.W. and Edwards, S. (1994b) Nutritional influences on mood and cognitive performance: Their measurement and relevance to food acceptance. In Measurement of Food Preferences, pp. 227–252 (H.J.H. MacFie and D.M.H. Thomson, eds). Glasgow: Blacke A&P.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rogers, P.J., Richardson, N.J. and Dernoncourt, C. (1995a) Caffeine use: Is there a net benefit for mood and psychomotor performance? Neuropsychobiology, 31,195–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rogers, P.J., Richardson, N.J. and Elliman, N.A. (1995b) Overnight caffeine abstinence and negative reinforcement of preference for caffeine-containing drinks. Psychopharmacology, 120, 457–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rosenthal, N.E., Genhart, M.J., Jacobson, F.M., Skwerer, R.G. and Weht, T.A. (1987) Disturbances of appetite and weight regulation in seasonal affective disorder. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 499, 216–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rosenthal, N.E., Genhart, M.J., Caballero, B., Jacobsen, F.M., Skwerer, R.G., Coursey, R.D., Rogers, S. and Spring, B.J. (1989) Psychobiological effects of carbohydrate- and protein-rich meals in patients with seasonal affective disorder and normal controls. Biological Psychiatry 25,1029–1040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schlundt, D.G., Virts, K.L., Sbrocco, T., Pope-Cordle, J. and Hill, J.O. (1993) A sequential behavioural analysis of craving sweets in obese women. Addictive Behaviors 18, 67–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Schweiger, U., Laessle, R., Kittle, S., Dickhaut, B., Schweiger, M. and Pirke, K.M. (1986) Macronutrient intake, plasma large neutral amino acids and mood during weight reducing diets. Journal of Neural Transmission 67, 77–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sclafani, A. (1990) Nutritionally based learned flavour preferences in rats. In Taste, Feeding and Experience, pp. 139–156 (E.D. Capaldi and T.L. Powley, eds). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Smart, J.L. (1993) ‘Malnutrition, learning and behaviour’: 25 years on from the MIT symposium. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 52,189–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Smith, A.P. and Kendrick, A.M. (1992) Meals and performance. In Handbook of Human Performance, Volume 2, Health and Performance, pp. 2–23 (A.P. Smith and D.M. Jones, eds). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  100. Smith, A.P. and Miles, C. (1986) Acute effects of meals, noise and nightwork. British Journal of Psychology 77, 377–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Smith, A.P., Leekam, S., Ralph, A. and McNeill, G. (1988) The influence of meal composition on post-lunch performance efficiency and mood. Appetite 10,195–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Smith, A.P., Rusted, J.M., Savory, M., Eaton-Williams, P. and Hall, S.R. (1991) The effects of caffeine, impulsivity and time of day on performance, mood and cardiovascular function. Journal of Psychopharmacology 5,120–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Smith, A., Maben, A., and Brockman, P. (1994) Effects of evening meals and caffeine on cognitive performance, mood and cardiovascular functioning. Appetite 22, 57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Spring, B. (1986) Effects of foods and nutrients on the behaviour of normal individuals. In Nutrition and the Brain, Volume 7, pp. 1–47 (R.J. Wurtman and J.J. Wurtman, eds). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  105. Spring, B., Chiodo J. and Bowen, D.J. (1987) Carbohydrates, tryptophan, and behavior: A methodological Review. Psychological Bulletin 102, 234–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Stacher, G., Bauer, H. and Steinringer, H. (1979) Cholecystokinin decreases appetite and activation evoked by stimuli arising from the preparation of a meal in man. Physiology and Behavior 23, 325–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Stolerman, I. (1992) Drugs of abuse: behavioural principles, methods and terms. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 13,170–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Tarka, S.M. (1982) The toxicology of cocoa and methylxanthines: a review of the literature. CRC Critical Reviews of Toxicology 9, 275–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Teff, K.L., Young, S.N. and Blundell, J.E. (1989a) The effect of protein or carbohydrate breakfasts on subsequent plasma amino acid levels, satiety and nutrient selection in normal males. Pharmaclogy, Biochemistry and Behavior 34, 829–837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Teff, K.L., Young, S.M., Marchand, L. and Botez, M.I. (1989b) Acute effect of protein or carbohydrate breakfasts on human cerebrospinal fluid monoamine precursor and metabolite levels. Journal of Neurochemistry 52, 235–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. van Dusseldorp, M. and Katan, M.B. (1990) Headache caused by caffeine withdrawal among moderate coffee drinkers switched from ordinary to decaffeinated coffee: a 12-week double blind trial. British Medical Journal 300,1558–1559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. van Strein, T., Frijters, J.E.R., Bergers, G.P.A. and Defares, P.B. (1986) The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) for assessment of restrained, emotional, and external eating behaviour. International Journal of Eating Disorders 5, 295–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Vitiello, M.V. and Woods, S.C. (1977) Evidence for withdrawal from caffeine in rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 6, 553–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Weingarten, H.P. (1983) Conditioned cues elicit eating in sated rats: A role for learning in meal initiation. Science 220, 431–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Weingarten, H.P. (1984) Meal initiation controlled by learned cues: Effects of peripheral cholinergic blockade and cholecystokinin. Physiology and Behavior 32, 403–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Weingarten, H.P. (1985) Stimulus control of eating: implications for a two-factor theory of hunger. Appetite 6, 387–401.Google Scholar
  117. Weingarten, H.P. and Elston D. (1991) Food cravings in a college population. Appetite 17. 167—175.Google Scholar
  118. Weingarten, H.P. and Martin, G.M. (1989) Mechanisms of conditioned meal initiation. Physiology and Behavior 45, 735–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wurtman, J.J. (1988) Carbohydrate craving, mood changes, and obesity. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 49, (Supplement), 37–39.Google Scholar
  120. Wurtman R.J. and Wurtman J.J. (1989) Carbohydrates and depression. Scientific American 260, 50–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wurtman, R.J., Hefti, F. and Melamed, E. (1981) Precursor control of neurotransmitter synthesis. Pharmacological Reviews 32, 315–335.Google Scholar
  122. Wurtman, J., Wurtman, R., Reynolds, S., Tsay, R., and Chew, B. (1987) Fenfluramine suppresses snack intake among carbohydrate cravers but not among noncarbohydrate cravers. International Journal of Eating Disorders 6, 687–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wurtman, J.J., Brzezinski, A., Wurtman, R.J., and Laferrere, B. (1989) Effect of nutrient intake on premenstrual depression. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 161, 1228–1234.Google Scholar
  124. Young, S.N. (1991) Some effects of dietary components (amino acids carbohydrate, folic acid) on brain serotonin synthesis, mood and behaviour. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 69, 893–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Zellner, D.A. (1991) How foods get to be liked. In The Hedonics of Taste, pp. 199–217 (R.C. Bolles, ed.). Hillside New Jersey: Erlbaum.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter J. Rogers

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations