Attitudes and beliefs in food habits

  • Richard Shepherd
  • Monique M. Raats

Abstract

The choice of foods by free-living individuals is an area of concern for many people involved in the production and distribution of foods, but also for those concerned with nutrition and health education. Despite a great deal of knowledge gained on the impacts of diet on health and on specific diseases (Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy, 1994), relatively little is known about how and why people choose the foods that make up their diets or about how to influence their choices in an effective way. Given recommendations, for example, to reduce fat in the diet or increase the consumption of fruit and vegetables, it is then necessary to understand what determines people’s choices of foods and what obstacles there might be to such changes. Although official recommendations have been in place in the UK since the report by COMA in 1984 (Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy, 1984) for a reduction in the energy in the diet derived from fat there has been relatively little change (Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy, 1994).

Keywords

Sugar Carbohydrate Marketing Milton Rennet 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Advisory Council on Science and Technology (1990) Developments in Biotechnology, HMSO, London.Google Scholar
  2. Ajzen, I. (1988) Attitudes, Personality, and Behavior, Open University Press, Milton Keynes.Google Scholar
  3. Ajzen, I. and Fishbein, M. (1980) Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  4. Ajzen, I. and Timko, C. (1986) Correspondence between health attitudes and behavior. Basic and Applied Social Psychology , 7, 259–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Axelson, M.L., Brinberg, D. and Durand, J.H. (1983) Eating at a fast-food restaurant—a social-psychological analysis. Journal of Nutrition Education, 15, 94–8.Google Scholar
  6. Axelson, M.L., Federline, T.L. and Brinberg, D. (1985) A meta-analysis of food and nutrition related research. Journal of Nutrition Education , 17, 51–4Google Scholar
  7. Beale, D.A. and Manstead, A.S.R. (1991) Predicting mothers’ intentions to limit frequency of infants’ sugar intake: testing the theory of planned behavior. Journal Applied Social Psychology , 21, 409–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beck, L. and Ajzen, I. (1991) Predicting dishonest actions using the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Research in Personality , 25, 285–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bentler, P.M. and Speckart, G. (1979) Models of attitude-behavior relations. Psychological Review, 86, 452–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Biddle, B.J., Bank, B.J. and Slavinge, R.L. (1987) Norms, preferences, identities and retention decisions. Social Psychology Quarterly, 50, 322–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Breckler, S.J. and Wiggens, E.C. (1989) Affect versus evaluation in the structure of attitudes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology , 25, 253–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Charng, H.-W., Piliavin, J.A. and Callero, P.L. (1988) Role identity and reasoned action in the prediction of repeated behavior. Social Psychology Quarterly , 51, 303–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (1984) Diet and Cardiovascular Disease, HMSO, London.Google Scholar
  14. Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (1994) Nutritional Aspects of Cardiovascular Disease, HMSO, London.Google Scholar
  15. Eagly, A.H. and Chaiken, S. (1993) The Psychology of Attitudes. Harcourt, Brace and Jovanovich, San Diego.Google Scholar
  16. Fishbein, M. and Ajzen, I. (1975) Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior. An Introduction to Theory and Research, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.Google Scholar
  17. Fishbein, M. and Stasson, M. (1990) The role of desires, self-predictions, and perceived control in the prediction of training session attendance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology , 20, 173–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Frewer, L.J., Shepherd, R. and Sparks, P. (1994) The interrelationship between perceived knowledge, control and risk associated with a range of food related hazards targeted at the self, other people and society. Journal of Food Safety , 14,19–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hamstra, A. (1991) Biotechnology in Foodstuffs: Towards a Model of Consumer Acceptance, Institute for Consumer Research, The Hague.Google Scholar
  20. Khan, M.A. (1981) Evaluation of food selection patterns and preferences. CRC Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 15,129–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McGuire, W. (1985) Attitudes and attitude change, in The Handbook of Social Psychology. Vol. 2. 3rd edn (eds G. Lindzy and E. Aronson), Random House, New York, pp. 233–346.Google Scholar
  22. Murcott, A. (1989) Sociological and social anthropological approaches to food and eating, in World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics, 55, (ed. G.H. Bourne), Karger, Basel, pp. 1–40.Google Scholar
  23. Pilgrim, F.J. (1957) The components of food acceptance and their measurement. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 5,171–5.Google Scholar
  24. Pimentel, D., Hunter, M.S., LaGro, J.A., Efroymson, R.A., Landers, J.C., Mervis, F.T., McCarthy, C.A. and Boyd, A.E. (1989) Benefits and risks of genetic engineering in agriculture. Bioscience , 39, 606–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Raats, M.M., Shepherd, R. and Sparks, P. (1995) Including moral dimensions of choice within the structure of the Theory of Planned Behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology , 25, 484–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Randall, E. and Sanjur, D. (1981) Food preferences—their conceptualization and relationship to consumption. Ecology of Food and Nutrition , 11,151–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rosenberg, M.J. and Hovland, C.I. (1960) Cognitive, affective, and behavioral components of attitudes, in Attitude Organization and Change: An Analysis of Consistency among Attitude Components (eds C.I. Hovland and M.J. Rosenberg), Yale University Press, New Haven, pp. 1–14.Google Scholar
  28. Schifter, D.E. and Ajzen, I. (1985) Intention, perceived control, and weight loss: an application of the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 49,843–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shepherd, R. (1985) Dietary salt intake. Nutrition and Food Science , 96,10–11.Google Scholar
  30. Shepherd, R. (1988) Belief structure in relation to low-fat milk consumption. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 1, 421–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shepherd, R (1989) Factors influencing food preferences and choice, in Handbook of the Psychophysiology of Human Eating (ed. R. Shepherd), Wiley, Chichester, pp. 3–24.Google Scholar
  32. Shepherd, R, and Farleigh, C.A. (1986) Preferences, attitudes and personality as determinants of salt intake. Human Nutrition: Applied Nutrition , 40A, 195–208.Google Scholar
  33. Shepherd, R. and Stockley, L. (1985) Fat consumption and attitudes towards food with a high fat content. Human Nutrition: Applied Nutrition, 39A, 431–42.Google Scholar
  34. Shepherd, R. and Stockley, L. (1987) Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and fat consumption. Journal of the American Dietetic Association , 87, 615–19.Google Scholar
  35. Sheppard, B.H., Hartwick, J. and Warshaw, P.R. (1988) The theory of reasoned action: a metaanalysis of past research with recommendations for modifications and future research. Journal of Consumer Research , 15, 325–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sparks, P. and Shepherd, R. (1992) Self-identity and the theory of planned behavior: assessing the role of identification with ‘green consumerism’. Social Psychology Quarterly , 55,388–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sparks, P. and Shepherd, R. (in preparation) The moral dimension of attitudes towards genetic engineering in food production.Google Scholar
  38. Sparks, P., Hedderley, D. and Shepherd, R. (1992) An investigation into the relationship between perceived control, attitude variability and the consumption of two common foods. European Journal of Social Psychology , 23, 55–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sparks, P., Shepherd, R. and Frewer, L.J. (1994) Gene technology, food production, and public opinion: a UK study. Agriculture and Human Values, 11, 19–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sparks, P., Shepherd, R. and Frewer, L.J. (1995) Assessing and structuring attitudes toward the use of gene technology in food production: the role of perceived ethical obligation. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 16, 267–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Straughan, R. (1991) Genetic manipulation for food production: social and ethical issues for consumers. British Food Journal , 92 (7), 13–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tesser, A. and Shaffer, D.R. (1990) Attitudes and attitude change. Annual Review of Psychology, 41, 479–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Towriss, J.G. (1984) A new approach to the use of expectancy value models. Journal of the Market Research Society, 26, 63–75.Google Scholar
  44. Tuorila, H. (1987) Selection of milks with varying fat contents and related overall liking, attitudes, norms and intentions. Appetite, 8, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tuorila, H. and Pangborn, R.M. (1988) Behavioural models in the prediction of consumption of selected sweet, salty and fatty foods, in Food Acceptability (ed. D.M.H. Thomson), Elsevier Applied Science, London, pp. 267–279.Google Scholar
  46. Wicker, A.W. (1969) Attitude versus actions: the relationship of verbal and overt behavioral responses to attitude objects. Journal of Social Issues, 25, 41–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wilson, T.D., Dunn, D.S., Kraft, D. and Lisle, D.J. (1989) Introspection, attitude change and attitude-behavior consistency: the disruptive effects of explaining why we feel the way we do, in Advances in Social Psychology, Vol. 22 (ed. L. Berkowitz), Academic Press, New York, pp. 287–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Shepherd
  • Monique M. Raats

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations