Bioeffects of mobile communications fields: possible mechanisms for cumulative dose

  • W. Ross Adey
Part of the Telecommunications Technology & Applications Series book series (TTAP)

Abstract

Spectacular developments in radio engineering technology over the past decade have created striking new options in personal communication devices and systems. Through miniaturization born of computer chip technology, there has been a step function increment in device reliability and user convenience. User acceptance of these new technologies has been immediate and worldwide. In the perspective of human health, a population base of millions of daily users are now exposed to RF fields under near-field conditions, with expectations that these newly evolved behavioral patterns will continue on a lifelong basis.

Keywords

Convection Depression Lymphoma Attenuation Estrogen 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adey, W.R. (1972) Organization of brain tissue: is the brain a noisy processor? Internat. J. Neurosci., 49, 271–284.Google Scholar
  2. Adey, W.R. (1980) Frequency and power windowing in tissue interactions with weak electromagnetic fields. Proc. IEEE, 68, 119–125.Google Scholar
  3. Adey, W.R. (1981) Tissue interactions with nonionizing electromagnetic fields. Physiol Rev., 61, 435–514.Google Scholar
  4. Adey, W.R. (1990a) Electromagnetic fields and the essence of living systems, in Modern Radio Science (ed J. B. Andersen), University Press, Oxford, pp. 1–36.Google Scholar
  5. Adey, W.R. (1990b) Joint actions of nonionizing environmental electromagnetic fields and chemical pollution in cancer promotion. Environmental Health Perspectives, 86, 297–305.Google Scholar
  6. Adey, W.R. (1992a) Collective properties of cell membranes, in Interaction Mechanisms of Low-Level Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems (eds B. Norden and C. Ramel), University Press, Oxford, pp. 47–77.Google Scholar
  7. Adey, W.R. (1992b) ELF magnetic fields and promotion of cancer: experimental studies, in Interaction Mechanisms of Low-Level Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems (eds B. Norden and C. Ramel), University Press, Oxford, pp. 23–46.Google Scholar
  8. Adey, W.R. (1993a) Electromagnetics in biology and medicine, in Modern Radio Science (ed H. Matsumoto), University Press, Oxford, pp. 231–249.Google Scholar
  9. Adey, W.R. (1993b) Biological effects of electromagnetic fields. J. Cell. Biochem., 51, 410–416.Google Scholar
  10. Adey, W.R., Kado, J. and Didio, J. (1962) Impedance measurements in brain tissue of animals using microvolt signals. Exptl. Neurol., 5, 47–66.Google Scholar
  11. Adey, W.R., Kado, J., Didio, J. et al. (1963) Impedance changes in cerebral tissue accompanying a learned discriminative performance in the cat. Exptl. Neurol., 7, 259–281.Google Scholar
  12. Adey, W.R., Kado, R.T. and Walter, D.O. (1965) Impedance characteristics of cortical and subcortical structures; evaluation of regional specificity in hypercapnea ad hypothermia. Exptl. Neurol., 11, 190–216.Google Scholar
  13. Adey, W.R., Byus, C.V., Haggren, W. et al. (1996) Brain tumor incidence in rats chronically exposed to digital cellular telephone fields in an initiation-promotion model. Bioelectromagnetics Society, 18th Annual Meeting, Proceedings, Abstract A-7–3.Google Scholar
  14. Astumian, R.D., Weaver, J.C. and Adair, R.K. (1995) Rectification and signal averaging of weak electric fields by biological signals. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 92, 3740–3743.Google Scholar
  15. Bach Andersen, J., Johansen, C., Pedersen, G.F. et al. (1995) On the Possible Health Effects Related to GSM and DECT Transmissions. A tutorial study. Center for Personkommunikation, Institute of Electronic Systems, Aalborg University, Denmark. 60 ppGoogle Scholar
  16. Barber, P.W., Gandhi, O.P., Hagmann, M.J. et al. (1979) I. Electromagnetic absorption in a multilayer model of man. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 26, 400–405.Google Scholar
  17. Barnes, F.S. (1996) The effects of ELF on chemical reaction rates in biological systems, in Biological Effects of Magnetic and Electromagnetic Fields (ed S. Ueno), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 37–44.Google Scholar
  18. Bassen, H., Litovitz, T., Penafiel, M. et al. (1992) In vitro exposure systems for inducing uniform electric and magnetic fields in cell culture. Bioelectromagnetics, 13, 183–198.Google Scholar
  19. Bawin, S.M., Gavalas-Medici, R. and Adey, W.R. (1973) Effects of modulated very high frequency fields on specific brain rhythms in cats. Brain Res., 58, 365–384.Google Scholar
  20. Bawin, S.M., Kaczmarek, L.K. and Adey, W.R. (1975) Effects of modulated VHF fields on the central nervous system. Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 247, 74–81.Google Scholar
  21. Bawin, S.M., Sheppard, A.R., Mahoney, M.D. et al. (1986a) Influences of sinusoidal electric fields on excitability in the rat hippocampal slice. Brain Res., 323, 227–237.Google Scholar
  22. Bawin, S.M., Sheppard, A.R., Mahoney, M.D. et al. (1986b) Comparison between the effects of extracellular direct and sinusoidal currents on excitability in hippocampal slices. Brain Res., 362, 350–354.Google Scholar
  23. Bawin, S.M., Satmary, W.M. and Adey, W.R. (1994) Nitric oxide modulates rhythmic slow activity in rat hippocampal slices. NeuroReport, 5, 1869–1872.Google Scholar
  24. Bawin, S.M., Satmary, W.M., Jones, R.A. et al. (1995a) Interactions Between ELF Magnetic Fields and Brain Processes Require Synthesis of Nitric Oxide. Proceedings of the Bioelectromagnetics Society, 17th Annual Meeting, p. 83.Google Scholar
  25. Bawin, S.M., Satmary, W.M., Jones, R.A. et al. (1995b) Extremely low frequency magnetic fields disrupt rhythmic slow activity in rat hippocampal slices (in press).Google Scholar
  26. Bell, G.B., Marino, A.A. and Chesson, A.L. (1992) Alteration in brain electrical activity caused by magnetic fields: detecting the detection process. Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol., 83, 389–397.Google Scholar
  27. Bell, G.B., Marino, A.A., Chesson, A.L. et al. (1992) Electrical states in the rabbit brain can be altered by light and electromagnetic fields. Brain Res., 570, 307–315.Google Scholar
  28. Benveniste, M. and Mayer, M.L. (1993) Multiple effects of spermine on N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor responses of rat cultured hippocampal neurones. J. Physiol Lond., 464, 131–163.Google Scholar
  29. Berridge, M.J., Cobbold, P.H. and Cuthbertson, K.S.R. (1988) Spatial and temporal aspects of cell signalling. Phil Trans. Roy. Soc., 320, 325–343.Google Scholar
  30. Bezrukov, S.M. and Vodyanoy, I. (1995) Noise-induced enhancement of signal transduction across voltage-dependent ion channels. Nature, 378, 362–364.Google Scholar
  31. Bialek, W. (1983) Macroquantum effects in biology; the evidence. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, 250 pp.Google Scholar
  32. Bialek, W. and Wit, H.P. (1984) Quantum limits to oscillator stability: theory and experiments on acoustic emissions from the human ear. Phys. Lett., 104A, 173–178.Google Scholar
  33. Blackman, C.F., Elder, J.A., Weil, C.M. et al. (1979) Induction of calcium ion efflux from brain tissue by radio frequency radiation: effects of modulation frequency and field strength. Radio Sci., 14, 93–98.Google Scholar
  34. Blackman, C.F., Benane, S.G., House, D.E. et al. (1985) Effects of ELF (1–120 Hz) and modulated (50 Hz) RF fields on the efflux of calcium ions from brain tissue in vitro. Bioelectromagnetics, 6, 327–338.Google Scholar
  35. Blackman, C.F., Benane, S.G., Elliot, D.J. et al. (1988) Influence of electromagnetic fields on the efflux of calcium ions from brain tissue in vitro: a three-model analysis consistent with the frequency response up to 510 Hz. Bioelectromagnetics, 9, 215–227.Google Scholar
  36. Blackman, C.F., Benane,S.G., House, D.E. et al. (1990) Importance of alignment between local DC magnetic field and an oscillating magnetic fields in responses of brain tissue in vitro and in vivo. Bioelectromagnetics, 11, 159–167.Google Scholar
  37. Blackman, C.F., Blanchard, J.P., Benane, S.G. et al. (1994) Empirical test of an ion parametric resonance model for magnetic field interactions with PC-12 cells. Bioelectromagnetics, 15, 239–260.Google Scholar
  38. Blanchard, J.P. and Blackman, C.F. (1994) Clarification and application of an ion parametric resonance model for magnetic field interactions with biological systems. Bioelectromagnetics, 15, 217–238.Google Scholar
  39. Byus, C.V., Lundak, R.L., Fletcher, R.M. et al. (1984) Alterations in protein kinase activity following exposure of cultured lymphocytes to modulated microwave fields. Bioelectromagnetics, 5, 34–51.Google Scholar
  40. Byus, C.V., Pieper, S. and Adey, W.R. (1987) The effect of low-energy 60 Hz environmental electromagnetic fields upon the growth related enzyme ornithine decarboxylase. Carcinogenesis, 8, 1385–1389.Google Scholar
  41. Byus, C.V., Kartun, K.S., Pieper, S.E. et al. (1988) Increased ornithine decarboxylase activity in cultured cells exposed to low energy microwave fields and phorbol ester tumor promoters. Cancer Res., 48, 4222–26.Google Scholar
  42. Cain, C.D., Thomas, D.L. and Adey, W.R. (1993) 60 Hz magnetic field acts as co-promoter in focus formation of C3H10T1/2 cells. Carcinogenesis, 14, 955–960.Google Scholar
  43. Castagna, M., Takai, Y., Kaibuchi, K. et al. (1982) Direct activation of calcium-activated phospholipid-dependent protein kinase by tumor-promoting phorbol esters. J. Biol. Chem., 257, 7847–51.Google Scholar
  44. Christiansen, P.L. (1989) Shocking optical solitons. Nature, 339, 17–18.Google Scholar
  45. Cleveland, R.F. and Athey, T.W. (1989) Specific absorption rate (SAR) in models of the human head exposed to handheld portable radios. Bioelectromagnetics, 10, 173–186.Google Scholar
  46. Demers, P.A. et al. (1991) Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and breast cancer in men. Am. J. Epidemiol., 132, 775–776.Google Scholar
  47. DeVault, D. and Chance, B. (1966) Studies of photosynthesis using a pulsed laser. I. Temperature dependence of cytochrome oxidation rate in chromatium. Evidence of tunneling. Biophys. J., 6, 825–847.Google Scholar
  48. Dutta, S.K., Subramoniam, A., Ghosh, B. et al. (1984) Microwave radiation-induced calcium efflux from brain tissue, in vitro. Bioelectromagnetics, 5, 71–78.Google Scholar
  49. Eichwald, C. and Kaiser, F. (1995) Model for external influences on cellular signal transduction pathways including cytosolic calcium oscillations. Bioelectromagnetics, 16, 75–85.Google Scholar
  50. Einolf, C.W. and Carstensen, E.L. (1971) Low-frequency dielectric dispersion in suspension of ion-exchange resins. J. Phys. Chem., 75, 1091–1099.Google Scholar
  51. Engstrom, S. (1995a) What is the Locus of ELF Magnetic Field Interaction? Bioelectromagnetic Society, Proceedings 17th Annual Meeting, Boston MA, p. 114.Google Scholar
  52. Engstrom, S. (1995b) An Experiment to Determine the Natural Timescale of Magnetic Field Interaction with Biological Systems. Annual Review of Research on Biological Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields from Generation, Delivery and Use of Electricity, U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Management. Proceedings, p. 19.Google Scholar
  53. Feychting, M. and Ahlbom, A. (1992) Magnetic fields and cancer in people resid-ning near Swedish high voltage power lines. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm. IMM-Report 6/92, 67 pp.Google Scholar
  54. Frohlich, H. (1946) Shape of collision-broadened spectral lines. Nature, 157, 468.Google Scholar
  55. Frohlich, H. (1968) Long-range coherence and energy storage in biological systems. Internat. J. Quant. Chem., 2, 641–659.Google Scholar
  56. Gandhi, O.P. (1975) Strong dependence of whole animal absorption on polarization and frequency of radio frequency energy. Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 247, 532–538.Google Scholar
  57. Gandhi, O.P. and Hagmann, M.J. (1977) Some recent results on deposition of electromagnetic energy in animals and models of man, in The Physical Basis of Electromagnetic Interactions with Biological Systems (eds L. S. Taylor and A. Y. Cheung), University of Maryland, College Park, pp. 243–260.Google Scholar
  58. Gandhi, O.P. et al. (1994) Electromagnetic Absorption in the Human Head for Cellular Telephones. Bioelectromagnetics Society, 16th Annual Meeting, Proceedings, pp. 64–65.Google Scholar
  59. Garaj-Vhrovac, V., Fucic, A. and Horvat, D. (1990) Comparison of chromosome aberration and micronuclei induction in human lymphocytes after occupational exposure to vinyl chloride monomer and microwave radiation. Periodicum Biologorium, 92, 411–416.Google Scholar
  60. Garaj-Vhrovac, V., Fucic, A. and Horvat, D. (1992) The correlation between the frequency of micronuclei and specific chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes exposed to microwave radiation in vitro. Mutat. Res., 281, 181–186.Google Scholar
  61. Grissom, C.B. (1995) Magnetic field effects in biology: a survey of possible mechanisms with emphasis on radical-pair recombination. Chem Rev., 95, 3–24.Google Scholar
  62. Grodsky, I.T. (1977) Neuronal membranes: a physical synthesis. Math. Biosci., 28, 191–219.Google Scholar
  63. Grundler, W., Keilmann, F. and Frohlich. H. (1977) Resonant growth rate response of yeast cells irradiated by weak microwaves. Phys. Lett., 62A, 463–466.Google Scholar
  64. Grundler, W. and Kaiser, F. (1992) Experimental evidence for coherent excitations correlated with cell growth. Nanobiology, 1, 163–176.Google Scholar
  65. Grundler, W., Keilmann, F., Putterlik, V. et al. (1983) Nonthermal resonant effects of 42 GHz microwaves on the growth of yeast cultures, in Coherent Excitations in Biological Systems (eds H. Frohlich and F. Kremer), Springer, Berlin, pp. 21–37.Google Scholar
  66. Grundler, W., Kaiser, F., Keilmann, F. et al. (1992) Mechanics of electromagnetic interaction with cellular systems. Naturwissenschaften, 79, 551–559.Google Scholar
  67. Hagmann, M.J., Gandhi, O.P. and Durney, C.H. (1979) Numerical calculation of electromagnetic enrgy deposition for a realistic model of man. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., 27, 804–809.Google Scholar
  68. Helzlsouer, K.J., Harris, E.L., Parshad, R. et al. (1995) Familial clustering of breast cancer: possible interaction between DNA repair proficiency and radiation exposure in the development of breast cancer. Int. J. Cancer, 64, 14–17.Google Scholar
  69. Hill, B.C., Schubert, E.D., Nokes, M.A. et al. (1977) Laser interferometer measurements of changes in crayfish axon diameter concurrent with action potential. Science, 196, 426–428.Google Scholar
  70. Holshouser, B.A., Komu, M., Moller, H.A. et al. (1995) Localized proton NMR spectroscopy in the striatum of patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease: a multi-center pilot study. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 33, 589–594.Google Scholar
  71. Illinger, K.H. (1962) Dispersion of microwaves in gases and liquids. Progr. Dielect., 4, 37–100.Google Scholar
  72. Illinger, K.H. (1981) Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation. American Chemical Society Symposium Series, No. 157, 342 pp.Google Scholar
  73. Izumi, Y. and Zorumski, C.F. (1993) Nitric oxide and long-term synaptic depression in the rat hippocampus. NeuroReport, 4, 1131–1134.Google Scholar
  74. Jefferys, J.G.R. and Haas, H.L. (1982) Synchronized bursting of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells in the absence of synaptic trransmission. Nature, 300, 448–450.Google Scholar
  75. Kaczmarek, L.K. and Adey, W.R. (1974) Some chemical and electrophysiological effects of glutamate in cerebral cortex. J. Neurobiol., 5, 231–241.Google Scholar
  76. Kaiser, F. (1983) Theory of resonant effects of RF and microwave energy, in Biological Effects and Dosimetry of Nonionizing Radiation (eds M. Grandolfo, F. Michaelson and A. Rindi), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 251–282Google Scholar
  77. Kaiser, F. (1984) Entrainment, quasi-periodicity-chaos-collapse: bifurcation routes of externally driven self-sustained oscillating systems, in Nonlinear Electrodynamics in Biological Systems (eds W. R. Adey and A. F. Lawrence), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 393–412.Google Scholar
  78. Kolomytkin, O., Yurinska, M., Zharikov, S. et al. (1994) Response of brain receptor systems to microwave energy exposure, in On the Nature of Electromagnetic Field Interactions with Biological Systems (ed A. H. Frey), R. G. Landes, Austin, Texas, pp. 195–206.Google Scholar
  79. Kritikos, H.N. and Schwan, H.P. (1972) Hot spots generated in conducting spheres by electromagnetic waves and biological implications. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 19, 53–58.Google Scholar
  80. Kritikos, H.N. and Schwan, H.P. (1975) The distribution of heating potential inside lossy spheres. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 22, 457–463.Google Scholar
  81. Kritikos, H.N. and Schwan, H.P. (1976) Formation of hot spots in multilayered spheres. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 23, 168–172.Google Scholar
  82. Kritikos, H.N. and Schwan, H.P. (1979) Potential temperature rise induced by electromagnetic field in brain tissue. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 26, 123–124.Google Scholar
  83. Kuster, N. and Balzano, Q. (1995) Experimental and numerical dosimetry. This volume.Google Scholar
  84. Lai, H. and Singh, N. (1995) Acute low-density microawave exposure increases DNA single-strand breaks in rat brain cells. Bioelectromagnetics, 16, 207–210.Google Scholar
  85. Lampe, P.D. (1994) Analyzing phorbol ester effects on gap junctional communication: a dramatic inhibition of assembly. J. Cell. Biol., 127, 1895–1905.Google Scholar
  86. Lednev, V.V. (1991) Possible mechanism for the influence of weak magnetic fields on biological systems. Bioelectromagnetics, 12, 71–75.Google Scholar
  87. Lednev, V.V. (1995) Comments on ‘Clarification and application of ion parametric resonance model for magnetic field interactions with biological systems’ by Blanchard and Blackman. Bioelectromagnetics, 16, 268–269.Google Scholar
  88. Lerchl, A., Reiter, R.J., Howes, K.A. et al. (1991) Evidence that extremely low frequency Ca2+-cyclotron resonance depresses pineal melatonin synthesis in vitro. Neurosci. Lett., 124, 213–215.Google Scholar
  89. Liboff, A.R. (1985) Cyclotron resonance in membrane transport, in Interactions Between Electromagnetic Fields and Cells (eds A. Chiabrera, C. Nicolini and H. P. Schwan), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 281–296.Google Scholar
  90. Liboff, A.R., Rozak, R.J., Sherman, M.L. et al. (1987) Calcium-45 cyclotron resonance in human lymphocytes. J. Bioelectr., 6, 13–22.Google Scholar
  91. Liburdy, R.P. (1992) Biological interactions of cellular sytems with time-varying magnetic fields. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 649, 74–95.Google Scholar
  92. Liburdy, R.P. (1995) Cellular studies and interaction mechanisms of extremely low frequency fields. Radio Sci., 30, 179–203.Google Scholar
  93. Lin-Liu, S. and Adey, W.R. (1982) Low frequency amplitude-modulated microwave fields change calciumc efflux rates from synaptosomes. Bioelectromagnetics, 3, 309–322.Google Scholar
  94. Litovitz, T., Krause, D., Penafiel, M. et al. (1993) The role of coherence time in the effect of microwaves on ornithine decarboxylase activity. Bioelectromagnetics, 14, 395–404.Google Scholar
  95. Loewenstein, W. () Junctional intercellular communication: the cell-to-cell communication channel. Physiol. Rev., 61, 829–913.Google Scholar
  96. Loscher, W. and Mevissen M. (1995) Linear Relationship Between Flux Density and Tumor Copromoting Effect of Magnetic Field in Rat Breast Cancer Model. Bioelectromagnetics Society, 17th Annual Meeting, Proceedings, p. 78.Google Scholar
  97. Luben, R.A. (1991) Effects of low energy electromagnetic fields (pulsed and DC) on membrane signal transduction processes in biological systems. Health Phys., 61, 15–28.Google Scholar
  98. Luben, R.A., Morgan, A.P., Carlson, A. et al. (1994) One Gauss 60Hz Magnetic Fields Modulate Protein Kinase Activity by a Mechanism Similar to That of Tumor Promoting Phorbol Esters. Bioelectromagnetics Society, 16th Annual Meeting. Proceedings, p. 74.Google Scholar
  99. Lyle, D.B., Schechter, P., Adey, W.R. et al. (1983) Suppression of T lymphocyte cytoxicity following exposure to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated fields. Bioelectromagnetics, 4, 281–292.Google Scholar
  100. Lyle, D.B., Ayotte, R.D., Sheppard, A.R. et al. (1988) Suppression of T lymphocyte cytotoxicity following exposure to 60 Hz sinusoidal electric fields. Bioelectromagnetics, 9, 303–313.Google Scholar
  101. Lyskov, E.B., Juutilainen, J., Jousmaki, V. et al. (1993) Effects of 45 Hz magnetic fields on the functional state of the human brain. Bioelectromagnetics, 14, 87–95.Google Scholar
  102. Matanoski, G.M., Breyese, P.N. and Elliot, E.A. (1991) Electromagnetic field exposure and male breast cancer. Lancet, 33, 737.Google Scholar
  103. McBain, C.J. and Mayer, M.L. (1994) N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor structure and function. Physiol Rev., 74, 723–760.Google Scholar
  104. McConnell. H.M. (1975) Coupling between lateral and perpendicular motion in biological membranes, in Functional Linkage in Biomolecular Systems (eds F. O. Schmitt, D. M. Schneider and D. M. Crothers), Raven Press, New York, pp. 123–131.Google Scholar
  105. McGurk, J.F., Bennett, M.V. and Zukin, R.S. (1990) Polyamines potentiate responses of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 87, 9971–9974.Google Scholar
  106. McLauchlan, K. (1992) Are environmental electromagnetic fields dangerous? Physics World, pp. 41–45, January.Google Scholar
  107. McLauchlan, K. and Steiner, U.E. (1991) The spin-correlated radical pair as a reaction intermediate. Molec. Physics, 73, 241–263.Google Scholar
  108. McLean, J.R.N., Stuchly, M.A., Mitchel, R.E.J, et al. (1991) Cancer promotion in a mouse-skin model by a 60 Hz magnetic field: II. Tumor development and immune response. Bioelectromagnetics, 12, 273–288.Google Scholar
  109. Mevissen, M., Loscher, W., Lerchl, A. et al. (1995) Possible mechanisms of the tumor copromoting effect of magnetic field exposure in a rat breast cancer model. Bioelectromagnetics Society, 17th Annual Meeting, Proceedings, p. 50.Google Scholar
  110. Miller, D.A. and Miller, O.J. (1983) Chromosomes and cancer in the mouse: studies in tumors established cell lines and cell hybrids. Advances Cancer Res., 39, 153–183.Google Scholar
  111. Mirutenko, V.I. and Bogach, P.C. (1977) Participation of Na-ions in the mechanisms of microwave effect on the nonstriated muscle cell membrane potential. Molecular Genetics and Biophysics, 2, 102–104.Google Scholar
  112. Misakian, M. and Kaune, W.T. (1990) Optimal experimental design for in vitro studies with ELF magnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics, 11, 251–255.Google Scholar
  113. Moser, C.C., Keske, J.M., Warncke, K. et al. (1990) Nature of biological electron transfer. Nature, 355, 796–802.Google Scholar
  114. Nishizuka, Y. (1983) Protein kinase C as a possible receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters. J. Biol. Chem., 258, 11442–6.Google Scholar
  115. Nishizuka, Y. (1984) The role of protein kinase C in cell surface signal transduction and tumour promotion. Nature, 308, 693–698.Google Scholar
  116. Pitot, H.C. and Dragan, Y.P. (1991) Facts and theories concerning the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. FASEB J., 5, 2280–8.Google Scholar
  117. Porter, R., Adey, W.R. and Kado, R.T. (1965) Measurement of electrical impedance in the human brain: some preliminary observations. Neurology, 14, 1002–1012.Google Scholar
  118. Ranck, J.B. (1964) Specific impedance of cerebral cortex during spreading depression and an analysis of neuronal, neuroglial and interstitial contributions. Exp. Neurol., 9, 1–16.Google Scholar
  119. Reiter, R.J. and Richardson, B.A. (1990) Magnetic field effects on pineal indoleamine metabolism and possible biological consequences. FASEB J., 6, 2283–7.Google Scholar
  120. Richardson, T.L., Turner, R.W. and Miller, J.J. (1984) Extracellular fields influence transmembrane potentials, and synchronization of hippocampal neuronal activity. Brain Res., 294, 255–262.Google Scholar
  121. Rock, D.M. and MacDonald, R.L. (1992) Spermine and related polyamines produce a voltage-dependent reduction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor single-channel conductance. Mol. Pharmacol., 42,157–164.Google Scholar
  122. Rozak, R.J., Sherman, M.L., Liboff, A.R. et al. (1987) Nifedipine is an antagonist to cyclotron resonance enhancement of 45Ca incorporation in human lymphocytes. Cell Calcium, 8, 413–427.Google Scholar
  123. Sarkar, S., Ali, S. and Behari, J. (1994) Effect of low power microwave on the mouse genome: a direct DNA analysis. Mutation Res., 320, 141–147.Google Scholar
  124. Schwarz, G. (1970) Cooperative binding to linear biopolymers. II. Fundamental static and dynamic properties. Eur. J. Biochem., 12, 442–453.Google Scholar
  125. Slaga, T.J., Sivak, A. and Boutwell, R.K. (eds) (1978) Mechanisms of Tumor Promotion and Carcinogenesis, Vol. 2, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  126. Smith, S.D., McLeod, B.R., Liboff, A.R. et al. (1987) Cyclotron resonance and diatom mobility. Bioelectromagnetics, 8, 215–227.Google Scholar
  127. Stammberger, J., Schmahl, W. and Nice, L. (1990) The effects of X-irradiation, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea or combined treatment on O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase activity in fetal rat brain and liver and the induction of CNS tumors. Carcinogenesis, 11, 219–222.Google Scholar
  128. Stevens, R.G. (1987) Electric power use and breast cancer: a hypothesis. Am. J. Epidemiol, 125, 556–561.Google Scholar
  129. Stevens, R.G., Davis, S., Thomas, D.B. et al. (1992) Electric power, pineal function and the risk of breast cancer. FASEB J., 6, 853–860.Google Scholar
  130. Szmigielski, S., Svdinski, A., Piatrasek, A. et al. (1982) Accelerated development of spontaneous and benzpyrene-induced skin cancer in mice exposed to 2450 MHz microwave radiation. Bioelectromagnetics, 3, 179–192.Google Scholar
  131. Tabib, A. and Bachrach, U. (1994) Activation of the proto-oncogene c-myc and c-fos by c-ras: involvement of polyamines. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Communications, 202, 720–727.Google Scholar
  132. Taylor, C.P. and Dudek, F.E. (1984) Excitation of hippocampal pyramidal cells by an electrical field effect. J. Neurophysiol., 52, 126–142.Google Scholar
  133. Taylor, A.M.R., McConville, C.M. and Byrd, P.J. (1994) Cancer and DNA processing disorders. Brit Med. Bull., 50, 708–717.Google Scholar
  134. Thomas, T.L., Stolley, P.D., Stemhagen, A. et al. (1987) Brain tumor mortality risk among men with electrical and electronics jobs: a case control study.J. Nat. Cancer Inst, 79, 233–238.Google Scholar
  135. Tjandrawinata, R.R., Hawel, L. 3rd and Byus, C.V. (1994) Regulation of putrescine export in lipopolysaccharide or IFN-gamma-activated murine monocytic leukemic RAW264 cells. J. Immunol., 152, 3039–52.Google Scholar
  136. Tynes, T. and Andersen, A. (1990) Electromagnetic fields and male breast cancer. Lancet, 336, 1596.Google Scholar
  137. Uckun, F.M., Kurosaki, T., Jin, J. et al. (1995) Exposure of B-lineage lymphoid cells to low energy electromagnetic fields stimulates Lyn kinase. J. Biol. Chem., 270, 27666–70.Google Scholar
  138. Van der Kloot, W.G. and Cohen, I. (1979) Membrane surface potential changes may alter drug interactions: an example, acetyl choline and curare. Science, 203, 1351–52.Google Scholar
  139. Van Vleck, J.H. and Weisskopf, V.F. (1945) Survey of the theory of ferromagnetics. Rev. Mod. Phys., 17, 27–47.Google Scholar
  140. Walleczek, J. (1994) Immune cell interactions with extremely low frequency magnetic fields: experimental verification and free radical mechanisms, in On the Nature of Electromagneitc Field Interactions with Biological Systems (ed A. H. Prey), R. G. Landes Company, Austin TX, pp. 167–180.Google Scholar
  141. Walleczek, J. and Liburdy, R.P., (1990) Nonthermal 60 Hz sinusoidal magnetic field exposure enhances 45Ca2+ uptake in rat thymocytes: dependence on mitogen activation. FEBS Lett., 271, 157–160.Google Scholar
  142. Warkany, J., Mandebur, T.I. and Kalter, H. (1976) Oncogenic response of rats with X-ray induced microencephaly to transplacental ethylnitrosourea. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 56, 59–64.Google Scholar
  143. Weinstein, I.B. (1988) The origins of human cancer: molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis and their implications for cancer treatment and prevention. Cancer Res., 48, 4135–43.Google Scholar
  144. Wilson, B.W., Wright, C.W., Morris, J.E. et al. (1990) Evidence for an effect of ELF electromagnetic fields on human pineal gland function. J. Pineal Res., 9, 259–269.Google Scholar
  145. Wiseman, H., Kaur, H. and Halliwell, B. (1995) DNA dmage and cancer: measurement and mechanism. Cancer Lett., 93, 113–120.Google Scholar
  146. Yamasaki, H. (1987) The role of cell-to-cell communication in tumor promotion, in Nongenotoxic Mechanisms in Carcinogenesis (eds T. E. Butterworth and T. J. Slaga), 25th Banbury Report, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.Google Scholar
  147. Yamasaki, H. (1991) Aberrant expression and function of gap junctions during carcinogenesis. Envir. Health Perspectives, 16, 136–144.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Ross Adey

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations