Recipient Immune Responses Induced by Allogeneic Whole Blood or Platelet Transfusions: Implications for Immunomodulation

  • J. W. Semple
  • D. Cosgrave
  • E. R. Speck
  • A. Bang
  • V. S. Blanchette
  • J. Freedman
Chapter
Part of the Developments in Hematology and Immunology book series (DIHI, volume 32)

Abstract

CD4+ T helper (Th) cell responses can be divided in Th0, Thl and Th2 [1-4]. These responses are categorized based on the identification of cytokines. Thl-like responses generally produce interleukin (IL)-2/interferon-γ (IFN-γ), primarily mediate cell mediated immunity and, in mice, induce the synthesis of IgG2a antibodies whereas Th2-like responses on the other hand generally produce IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10 and are superior at inducing IgG1 and IgE humoral immunity [1-4]. Th0-like responses are thought to be less differentiated than those mediating Thl and Th2 responses because cytokines characteristic of both e.g. IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-10, etc. can be identified. What makes these patterns of cytokines so intriguing is that they appear to be associated with different immune functions. With respect to transplantation, for example, there is compelling evidence that Thl responses are associated with graft rejection [5-9], whereas Th2 responses may be correlated with immune tolerance towards the graft [10–13].

Keywords

Lymphoma Argon Titration Heparin Allo 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Mosman TR, Cherwinski H, Bond MW, Giedlin MA, Coffman TL. Two types of mouse helper T cell clones: I. Definition according to profiles of lymphokine activities and secreted proteins. J Immunol 1986;136:2348–57.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Snapper CM, Paul WE. Interferon-γ and B cell stimulatory factor-1 reciprocally regulate Ig isotype production. Science 1986;236:944–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cher D, Mosman TR. Two types of mouse helper T cell clones: II. Delayed-type hypersensitivity is mediated by Thl clones. J Immunol 1987;138:3688–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mosman TR, Coffman RL. Thl and Th2 cells: different patterns of lymphokine secretion lead to different functional properties. Ann Rev Immunol 1989;7:145–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    O’Connell P, Pacheco-Silva A, Nickerson P. Unmodified pancreatic islet allograft rejection results in the preferential expression of certain T cell activation transcripts. J Immunol 1993;150:1093–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thai NL, Fu F, Qian S, et al. Cytokine mRNA profiles in mouse orthotopic liver transplantation. Graft rejection is associated with augmented Thl function. Transplantation 1995;59:274–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Egawa H, Martinez OM, Quinn MB, et al. Acute liver allograft rejection in the rat. An analysis of the immune response. Transplantation 1995;59:97–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Takeuchi T, Lowry RP, Konieczny B. Heart allografts in mouse systems: the differential activation of Th2-like effector cells in peripheral tolerance. Transplantation 1992; 53:1281–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hayashi M, Martinez OM, Garcia-Kennedy R, So S, Esquivel CO, Krams SM. Expression of cytokines and immune mediators during chronic liver allograft rejection. Transplantation 1995;60:1533–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Landorfo S, Cofano F, Giovarelli, Prat M, Cavallo G, Forni G. Inhibition of inter-feron-gamma may suppress allograft reactivity by T lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. Science 1985;229:176–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chen N, Field EH. Enhanced type 2 and diminished type 1 cytokines in neonatal tolerance. Transplantation 1995;59:933–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mottram PL Han W-R, Purcell LJ, McKenzie IFC Hancock WW. Increased expression of IL-4 and IL-10 and decreased expression of IL-2 and interferon-γ in long-surviving mouse heart allografts after brief CD4-monoclonal antibody therapy. Transplantation 1995;59:559–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Donckier V, Wissing M, Bruyns C, et al. Critical role of interleukin 4 in the induction of neonatal transplantation tolerance. Transplantation 1995;59:1571–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Opelz G, Senger DPS, Mickey MR, Terasaki PI. Effect of blood transfusions on subsequent kidney transplants. Transplant Proc 1973;5:253–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fabre JW, Bishop M, Sen T, et al. A study of three protocols of blood transfusion before renal transplantation in the dogs. Transplantation 1978:26:94–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Quigley RL, Wood KJ, Morris PJ. Investigation of the mechanism of active enhancement of renal allograft survival by blood transfusion. Immunol 1988;163:373–81.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Soulillou J-P. Blandin F, Gunther E, Lemoine V. Genetics of the blood transfusion effect on heart allografts in rats. Transplantation 1984;38:63–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shirwan H, Wang HK, Barwari L. Makowka L. Cramer DV. Pretransplant injection of allograft recipients with donor blood or lymphocytes permits allograft tolerance without the presence of persistent donor chimerism. Transplantation 1996:61:1382–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wood PJ, Roberts ISD, Yang C-P, Cossens IA, Bell ER. Prevention of chronic rejection by donor-specific blood transfusion in a new model of chronic cardiac allograft rejection. Transplantation 1996;61:1440–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dallman MJ, Shiho O, Page TH, Wood KJ, Morris PJ. Peripheral tolerance to alloanti-gen results from altered regulation of the interleukin-2 pathway. J Exp Med 1991; 173: 79–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Babcock GF, Alexander JW. The effects of blood transfusion on cytokine production by Thl and Th2 lymphocytes in the mouse. Transplantation 1996;61:465–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kalechman Y, Gafter U, Sobelman D, Sredni B. The effect of a single whole-blood transfusion on cytokine secretion. J Clin Immunol 1990;10:99–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chapman JR, Ting A, Fisher M. Failure of platelet transfusion to improve human renal allograft survival. Transplantation 1986;41:468–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bijnen AB, Heineman E, Marquet RL, et al. Lack of beneficial effect of thrombocyte transfusions on the kidney graft survival in dogs. Transplantation 1984;37:213–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Oh JH, McClure HM, Turtle EP. Immunological unresponsiveness induced by platelet transfusions in rhesus monkeys. Transplantation 1983;36:727–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hibberd AD, Scott LJ. Allogeneic platelets increase the survival of rat renal allografts. Transplantation 1983;35:622–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Semple JW, Speck ER, Milev YP, Blanchette V, Freedman J. Indirect allorecognition of platelets by T helper cells during platelet transfusions correlates with anti-MHC antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocyte formation. Blood 1995;86:805–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Oh JH, Taysavang P, Whelchel JD. Conferring immunogenicity to platelets by preincubation with recipients’ adherent cells. Proc IX International Congress of Immunology. San Francisco, CA, 1995;p 69 (Abstr).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kao KJ, Scornik JC. Accurate quantitation of the low number of white cells in white cell-depleted blood components. Transfusion 1989;29:774–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Finkelman FD, Holmes J, Katona IM, et al. Lymphokine control of in vivo immunoglobulin isotype selection. Ann Rev Immunol 1990;8:303–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sher A, Coffman RL. Regulation of immunity to parasites by T cells and T cell-derived cytokines. Ann Rev Immunol 1992;10:385–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Welsh KI, Burgos H, Batchelor JR. The immune response to allogeneic rat platelets; Ag-B antigens in matrix form lacking la. Eur J Immunol 1977;7:267–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Claas FHJ, Smeenk RJT, Schmidt R, Van Steenbrugge GJ, Eernisse JG. Alloimmunization against the MHC antigens after platelet transfusions is due to contaminating leukocytes in the platelet suspension. Exp Hematol 1981;9:84–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kao KJ. Effects of leukocyte depletion and UVB irradiation on alloantigenicity of major histocompatibility complex antigens in platelet concentrates: A comparative study. Blood 1992;80:2931–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bang A, Speck ER, Blanchette VS, Freedman J, Semple JW. Recipient humoral immunity against leukoreduced allogeneic platelets is suppressed by aminoguanidine, a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Blood 1996;88:2959–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bang A, Hicks KJ, Speck ER, Blanchette V, Freedman J, Semple JW. Allogeneic platelets require unique antigen processing mechanisms within recipient antigen presenting cells (APC) in order to stimulate alloantibody production. Blood, 1996; 88(Suppl 1): 162a.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Semple JW, Speck ER, Blanchette V, Freedman J. Immune non-responsiveness to allogeneic platelets in murine strains which lack MHC class II I-E molecules is due to the presence of CD8+ T cells. Blood, 1996;88 (Suppl 1):162a.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gracie JA, Bradley JA: Interleukin-12 induces interferon-γ-dependent switching of IgG alloantibody subclass. Eur J Immunol, 1996;26:1217-21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. W. Semple
  • D. Cosgrave
  • E. R. Speck
  • A. Bang
  • V. S. Blanchette
  • J. Freedman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations