Risk assessment: alternatives to animal testing

  • C. L. Broadhead
  • R. D. Combes
  • M. Balls


All new chemicals manufactured specifically for use in food are required to be evaluated for safety. Such chemicals which are intentionally incorporated into foods are additives, and this chapter focuses on their safety assessment. Each proposed food additive is subjected to various in vivo and in vitro assays, which may include tests for genotoxicity, acute and subchronic toxicity, carcinogenicity and teratogenicity (Chapter 2). In the UK, on the basis of the results obtained and the estimated daily intake, the additive is assigned an acceptable daily intake (ADI) value as an indication of the levels which may be consumed without the likelihood of adverse effects.


Food Additive European Economic Community Acceptable Daily Intake Acute Oral Toxicity National Toxicology Program 
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© Chapman & Hall 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. L. Broadhead
  • R. D. Combes
  • M. Balls

There are no affiliations available

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