Advertisement

Genitourinary Cancer

  • Marc S. Ernstoff
  • Christopher Tretter
  • John A. Heaney

Abstract

Tremendous strides have been made in the treatment of genitourinary malignancies in the past 10 to 15 years; the explosion of new findings in cell biology, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, immunology, and radiobiology continues to broaden and deepen our understanding of biology and treatment in the new century. This chapter summarizes present medical and surgical therapies employed for prostate, urinary bladder, testicular, and renal cancers. We highlight salient basic and clinical observations that have formed the foundation of our current therapeutic strategies in genitourinary cancers.

Keywords

Prostate Cancer Bladder Cancer Germ Cell Tumor Transitional Cell Carcinoma Testicular Cancer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Sladden M, Dickinson J: Testicular cancer: how effective is screening? Aust Fain Physician 1993, 22: 1350–1356.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dieckmann KP, Klan R, Bunte S: HLA antigens, Lewis antigens, and blood groups in patients with testicular germ-cell tumors. Oncol J Clin Exp Cancer Res 1993, 50: 252–258.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Al-Jehani Rlvi, Povey S, Delhanty JD, et al.: Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome arms 5q, llp, liq, 13q and 16p in human testicular germ cell tumors. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1995, 13:249–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Reilly PA, Heerema NA, Sledge GW Jr., et al.: Unusual distribution of chromosome 12 in a testicular germ-cell tumor cell line (833K) and its cisplatin-resistant derivative (64CP9) Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1993, 68:114–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pinczowski D, McLaughlin JK, Lackgren G, et al.: Occurrence of testicular cancer in patients operated on for cryptorchidism and inguinal hernia. J Ural 1991, 146:1291–1294Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Marselos M, Tomatis L: Diethylstilbestrol: I. Pharmacology, toxicology and carcinogenicity in humans. Eur JCancer 1992 28A:1182–1189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Prener A, Hsieh CC, Engholm G, et al.: Birth order and risk of testicular cancer. Cancer Causes Control 1992, 3:265–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhang Z, Vena JER, Zielezny M et al.: Occupational exposure to extreme temperature and risk of testicular cancer. Arch Environ Health 1995, 50:13–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Klepp O, Olsson AM, Henrikson H,et al.: Prognostic factors in clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis: multivariate analysis of a prospective multicenter study. Swedish-Norwegian Testicular Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol 1990, 8:509–518.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Birch R, Williams S, Cone A, et al.: Southeastern Cancer Group: prognostic factors for favorable outcome in disseminated germ cell tumors. J Clin Oncol 1986, 4:400–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Aass N, Klepp O, Cavallin-Stahl E, et al.: Prognostic factors in unselected patients with nonseminomatous metastatic testicular cancer: a multicenter experience. J Clin Oncol 1991, 9:818–826PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sesterhenn IA, Weiss BB, Mostofi FK, et al.: Prognosis and other clinical correlates of pathologic review in stage I and II testicular carcinoma: a report from the Testicular Cancer Intergroup Study. J Clin Onco1 1992, 10:69–78.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Horwich A, Norman A, Fisher C, et al.: Primary chemotherapy for clinical stage II nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis. J Urol 1994, 151:72–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Horwich A, Norman A, Fisher C, et al.: Primary chemotherapy for clinical stage II nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis. J Urol 1994, 151:72–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Baniel J, Roth BJ, Foster RS, et al.: Cost and risk benefit in the management of clinical stage II nonseminomatous testicular tumors. Cancer 1995, 75:2897–29903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Culine S, Theodore C, Terrier-Lacombe MJ, et al.: Primary chemotherapy in patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis and biological disease only after orchiectomy. J Ural 1996, 155:1296–1298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bajorin DF, Sarosdy MF, Pfister DG, et al.: Randomized trial of etoposide and cisplatin versus etoposide and carboplatin in patients with good-risk germ cell tumors: multi-institutional study. J Clin Oncol 1993, 11:598–606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Loehrer PJ Sr, Johnson D, Elson P, et al.: Importance of bleomycin in favorable-prognosis disseminated germ cell tumors: an ECOG trial. J Clin Onco1 1995, 13:470–476.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Levi JA, Raghavan D, Harvey V, et al.: The importance of bleomycin in combination chemotherapy for good-prognosis germ cell carcinoma. J Clin Onco1 1993, 11:1300–1305Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    McAleer JJ, Nicholls J, Horwich A: Does extragonadal presentation impart a worse prognosis to abdominal germ-cell tumors? EurJ Cancer 1992, 28A: 825–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bosl GJ, Motzer RJ: Testicular germ cell cancer [review].N EngI J Med 1997, 337:242–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Broun Erm Nichols CR, Gize G, et al.: Tandem high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation for initial relapse of testicular germ cell cancer. Cancer 1997, 79:1605–1610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pienta KJ, Esper PS: Risk factors for prostate cancer. Ann Intern Med 1993, 118:793–803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    DerSimonian R, Clemens J, Spirtas R, Perlman J: Vasectomy and prostate cancer risk: methodological review of the evidence. J Clin Epidemiol 1993, 46: 163–172.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hankin JH, Zhao LP, Wilkens LR, Kolonel LN: Attributable risk of breast, prostate and lung cancer in Hawaii due to standard fat. Cancer Causes Control 1992, 3: 17–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ross RK, Bernstein L, Lobo RA, et al.: 5-Alpha-reductase activity and risk of prostate cancer among Japanese and US white and black males. Lancet 1992, 339:887–889PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bacquet CR, Horm JW, Gibbs T, et al.: Socioeconomic factors and cancer incidence among blacks and whites. JNatl Cancer Inst 1991, 83:551–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Elghany NA, Schumacher MC, Slattery ML, et al.: Occupation, cadmium exposure, and prostate cancer. Epidemiology 1990, 1:107–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fleming C, Wasson JH, Albertsen PC, et al.: A decision analysis of alternative treatment strategies for clinically localized prostate cancer: Prostate Patient Outcome Research Team. JAMA 1993, 269:2650–2658PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lu-Yao GL, McLerran D, Wasson J, et al.: An assessment of radical prostatectomy: time trends, geographic variation, and outcomes. The Prostate Patient Outcome Research Team. DAMA 1993, 269:2633–2636 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Littrup PJ, Lee F, Mettlin C: Prostate cancer screening: current trends and future implications. Cancer 1992, 42: 198–211.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gerber GS, Thompson IM, Thisted R, et al.: Disease-specific survival following routine prostate cancer screening by digital rectal examination. DAMA 1993, 269:61–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    McCormack RT, Rittenhouse HG, Finlay J, et al.: Molecular forms of prostate specific antigen and the human kallikrein gene family: a new era. Urology 1995, 45:729–744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Thompson IM, Zeidman EJ: Current urological practice: routine urological examination and early detection of carcinoma of the prostate. J Ural 1992, 148: 326–329.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cama C, Olsson CA, Raffo AJ, et al.: Molecular staging of prostatic cancer: II. Comparison of application of enhanced reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay for PSA versus prostate specific membrane antigen. J Urol 1995, 153:1373–1378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sgrignoli AR, Walsh PC, Steinberg GD, et al.: Prognostic factors in men with stage Dl prostate cancer: identification of patients less likely to have prolonged survival after radical prostatectomy. J Ural 1994, 152:1077–1081Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Paulson DF, Lin GH, Hinshaw W: Radical surgery versus radiotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Ural 1982, 128: 502–504.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bolla M, Gonzalez D, Warde P, et al.: Improved survival in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy and goserelin. N Engl J Med 1997, 337:295–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Messing EM, Manola J, Sarosdy M, et al.: Immediate hormonal therapy compared with observation after radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy in men with node-positive prostate cancer. N EngI J Med 1999, 341:1781–1788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Labrie F, Luthy I, Veillewc R, et al.: New concepts on the androgen sensitivity of prostate cancer. Prog Clin Biol Res 1987, 243:145–172.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Prostate Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group: Maximum androgen blockade in advanced prostate cancer: an overview of 22 randomized trials with 3283 deaths in 5710 patients. Lancet 1995, 346: 265–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Caubet JF, Tosteson TD, Dong EW, et al.: Maximum androgen blockade in advanced prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trails using nonsteroidal antiandrogens. Urology 1997, 49:71–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Presti JC Jr, Fair WR, Andriole G, et al.: Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study to investigate the effect of finasteride (MK-906) on stage D prostate cancer. J Uro1 1992, 148:1201–1204Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fleshner NE, Trachtenberg J: Treatment of advanced prostate cancer with the combination of finasteride plus flutamide: early results. Eur Uro1 1993 24 (suppl):106–112.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kantoff PW, Halabi S, Conaway M, et aL: Hydrocortisone with or without mitoxantrone in men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer: results of the cancer and leukemia group B 9182 study./ Clin Oncol 1999, 17: 2506–2513.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hudes GR, Greenberg R, Krigel RL, et al.: Phase II study of estramustine and vinblastine, two microtubule inhibitors, in hormone-refractory prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 1992, 10:1754–1761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pienta LJ, Redman BG, Bandekar R, et al.: A phase II trial of oral estramustine and oral etoposide in hormone refractory prostate cancer. Urology 1997, 50:401–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hudes GR, Nathan F, Khater C, et al.: Phase II trial of 96-hour paclitaxel plus oral estramustine phosphate in metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 1997, 15:3156–3163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Pfeifer BL, Pirani JF, Hamann SR, et al.: A dietary supplement for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. BrJ UrolInt 2000, 85:481:208–485Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Robinson RG, Preston DF, Baxter KG, et al.: Clinical experience with strontium-89 in prostatic and breast cancer patients. Semin Onco1 1993, 20 (suppl):44–48.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Porter AT, McEwan AJ: Strontium-89 as an adjuvant to external beam radiation improves pain relief and delays disease progression in advanced prostate cancer: results of a randomized controlled trial. Semin Onco1 1993 20 (suppl):38–43.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Serafini AN, Houston SJ, Resche I, et aL: Palliation of pain associated with metastatic bone cancer using samarium-153 lexidronam: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Clin Onco1 1998, 16: 1574–1581.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Marsh GM, Callahan C, Pavlock D, et al.: A protocol for bladder cancer screening and medical surveillance among high-risk groups: the Drake Health Registry experience. J Occup Med 1990, 32:881–886PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kadlubar FF, Butler MA, Kaderlik KR, et al.: Polymorphisms for aromatic amine metabolism in humans: relevance for human carcinogenesis. Environ Health Perspect 1992, 98:69–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Vineis P, Ronco G: Interindividual variation in carcinogen metabolism and bladder cancer risk. Environ Health Perspect 1992, 98: 95–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Morris RD, Audet AM, Angelillo IF, et al.: Chlorination, chlorination byproducts, and cancer: a meta-analysis. Am JPublic Health 1992, 82:955–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Vena JE, Graham S, Freudenheim J, et al.: Diet in the epidemiology of bladder cancer in western New York. Nutr Cancer 1992, 18: 255–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Elcock M, Morgan RW: Update on artificial sweeteners and bladder cancer. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 1993, 17: 35–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mills PK, Beeson WL, Phillips RL, Fraser GE: Bladder cancer in a low risk population: results from the Adventist Health Study. Am J Epidemio1 1991, 133: 230–239.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kiemeney LA, Witjes JA, Verbeek AL, et al.: The clinical epidemiology of superficial bladder cancer. Dutch South-East Cooperative Urological Group. BrJ Cancer 1993, 67:806–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Tachibana M, Deguchi N, Baba S, et al.: Prognostic significance of bromodeoxyuridine high labeled bladder cancer measured by flow cytometry: does flow cytometric determination predict the prognosis of patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder? J Urol 1993, 149:739–743Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Esrig D, Elmajian D, Groshen S, et al.: Accumulation of nuclear p53 and tumor progression in bladder cancer. N Engl J Med 1994, 331:1259–1264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lacombe L, Dalbagni G, Zhang Z, et al.: Overexpression of p53 in a high-risk population of patients with superficial bladder cancer before and after Bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy: correlation to clinical outcome. J Clin Oncol 1996, 14:2646–2652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Herr HW, Schwalb BM, Zhang Z, et al.: Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy prevents tumor progression and death from superficial bladder cancer: ten-year follow-up of a prospective randomized trial. J Clin Oncol 1995, 13:1404–1408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Cookson MS, Herr HW, Zhang Z, et aL: The treated natural history of high-risk superficial bladder cancer: 15-year outcome. J Uro1 1997, 158: 62–67.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Burnand KG, Boyd PJ, Mayo ME, et aL: Single dose intravesical thiotepa as an adjuvant to cystodiathermy in the treatment of transitional cell bladder carcinoma. BrJ Ural 1976, 48: 55–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lamm DL, Crissmann J, Blumenstein B, et al.: Adriamycin versus BCG in superficial bladder cancer: a Southwest Oncology Group Study. Prog Clin Biol Res 1989, 310:263–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Krege S, Giani G, Meyer R, et aL: A randomized multicenter trial of adjuvant therapy in superficial bladder cancer: transurethral resection only versus transurethral resection plus mitomycin-C versus transurethral resection plus Bacillus Calmette-Guerin. J Uro1 1996, 156: 962–966.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Einstein AB Jr, Wolf M, Halliday KR, et al.: Combination transurethral resection, systemic chemotherapy, and pelvic radiotherapy for invasive (T2–T4) bladder cancer unsuitable for cystectomy: a phase I/II SWOG study. Urology 1996, 47:652–657PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Coppin CM Gospodarowica MK, James K, et al.: Improved local control of invasive bladder cancer by concurrent cisplatin and preoperative or definitive radiation: the NCI Canada Trials Group. J Clin Oncol 1996, 14:2901–2907PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kaufman DS, Shipley WU, Griffin PP, et aL: Selective bladder preservation by combination treatment of invasive bladder cancer [see comments]. N EnglJ Med 1993, 329: 1377–1382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Shipley WU, Kaufman DS, Heney NM, et aL: The integration of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and transurethral surgery in bladder-sparing approaches for patients with invasive tumors. Prog Clin Biol Res 1990, 353: 85–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Zietman AL, Shipley WU, Kaufman DS: The combination of cisplatin based chemotherapy and radiation in the treatment of muscle-invading transitional cell cancer of the bladder. IntJRadial Oncol Biol Phys 1993, 27: 161–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Tester W, Caplan R, Heany J, et al: Neoadjuvant combined modality program with selective organ preservation for invasive bladder cancer: results of RTOG phase II trial 8802. J Clin Oncol 1996, 14: 119–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kachnic LA, Kaufman DS, Heney NM, et al.: Bladder preservation by combined modality therapy for invasive bladder cancer. J Clin Oncol 1997, 15:1022–1029PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Stoclde M, Meyenburg W, Wellek S, et al.: Advanced bladder cancer (stages pT3b, pT4a, pNl, pN2): improved survival after radical cystectomy and 3 adjuvant cycles of chemotherapy. Results of a controlled prospective study. J Urol 1992, 148:302–306Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Freiha F, Reese J, Torti FM: A randomized trial of radical cystectomy versus radical cystectomy plus cisplatin, vinblastine, and methotrexate chemotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer. J Ural 1996, 155: 495–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mead GM, Russel M, Clark P, et aL: A randomized trial comparing methotrexate and vinblastine (MV) with cisplatin, methotrexate and vinblastine (CMV) in advanced transitional cell carcinoma: results and a report on prognostic factors in a Medical Research Council study, MRC Advanced Bladder Cancer Working Party. BrJ Cancer 1998, 78: 1067–1075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Neoadjuvant cisplatin, methotrexate, and vinblastine chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: a randomized controlled trial [international collaboration of trialists]. Lancet 1999, 354:526–527.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Shipley WU, Winter KA, Kaufman DS, et al.: Phase III trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with invasive bladder cancer treated with selective bladder preservation by combined radiation therapy and chemotherapy: initial results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 89–03. J Clin Oncol 1999, 17:1327–1328.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Loehrer PJ Sr, Einhorn LH, Elson PJ, et al.: A randomized comparison of cisplatin alone or in combination with methotrexate, vinblastine, and doxorubicin in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma: A cooperative group study. J Clin Onco1 1992, 10:1066–1073.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bellmunt J, Ribas A, Eres N, et al.: Carboplatin-based versus cisplatin alone or in combination with methotrexate, vinblastine, and doxorubicin in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma: a cooperative group study. J Clin Oncol 1992, 10:1066–1073.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Roth BJ, Dreicer R, Einhorn LH, et al.: Significant activity of paclitaxel in advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium: a phase II trial of the ECOG. J Clin Oncol 1994, 12:2264–2270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Dreicer R, Gustin DM, See WA, et al.: Paclitaxel in advanced urothelial carcinoma: its role in patients with renal insufficiency and as salvage therapy. J Urol 1996,156:1606–1608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    von der Maase H, Hansen SW, Roberts JT, et al.: Gemcitabine and cisplatin versus methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin and cisplatin in advanced or metastatic bladder cancer: results of a large, randomized, multinational, multicenter, phase III study. J Clin Oncol 2000, 17:3068–3077.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    McCredie M, Stewart JH: Risk factors for kidney cancer in New South Wales: IV. Occupation. J Indust Med 1993, 50: 349–354.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    van der Hout AH, van den Berg E, van der Vlies P, et al.: Loss of heterozygosity at the short arm of chromosome 3 in renal-cell cancer correlates with the cytological tumor type. IntJ Cancer 1993, 53:353–357.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    McCredie M, Stewart JH, Day NE: Different roles for phenacetin and paracetamol in cancer of the kidney and renal pelvis. IntJ Cancer 1993, 53: 245–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    McCredie M, Stewart JH: Risk factors for kidney cancer in New South Wales: I. Cigarette smoking. EurJ Cancer 1992, 28A: 2050–2054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    La Vecchia C, Negri E, D’Avanzo B, Franceschi S: Smoking and renal cell carcinoma. Cancer Res 1990, 50: 5231–5233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Palmer PA, Vinke J, Philip T, et al.: Prognostic factors for survival in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma treated with recombinant interleukin-2. Ann Oncol 1992, 3:475–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Rosenberg SA, Lotze MT, Yang JC, et al.: Prospective randomized trial of high-dose interleukin-2 alone or in conjunction with lymphokine-activated killer cells for the treatment of patients with advanced cancer. JNat Cancer Inst 1993,85:622–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Yang JC, Topalian SL, Parkinson D, et al.: Randomized comparison of high-dose and low-dose intravenous interleukin-2 for the therapy of metastatic renal cell carcinoma: an interim report. J Clin Oncol 1994, 12:1572–1576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Quesada JR, Swanson DA, Gutterman JU: Phase II study of interferon alpha in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a progress report. J Clin Onco1 1985, 3:1086–1092.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kirkwood JM, Harris JE, Vera R, et al: A randomized study of low and high doses of leukocyte alpha-interferon in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: the American Cancer Society Collaborative Trial. Cancer Res 1985, 45: 863–871.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Atkins MB, Sparano J, Fisher RI et al.: Randomized phase II trial of high-dose interleukin-2 either alone or in combination with interferon alfa-2b in advanced renal cell carcinoma. J Clin Onco1 1993, 11:661–670.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Schwaab T, Heaney JA, Schned AR, et al.: A randomized phase II trial comparing two different sequence combinations of autologous vaccine and human recombinant interferon gamma and human recombinant interferon alpha2B therapy in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: clinical outcome and analysis of immunological parameters. J Uro1 2000, 163:1322–1327Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kugler A, Stuhler G, Walden P et al.: Regression of human metastatic renal cell carcinoma after vaccination with tumor cell-dendritic cell hybrids. Nat Med 2000, 6:332–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Childs R, Chernoff A, Contentin N, et al.: Regression of metastatic renal cell carcinoma after nonmyeloablative allogeneic peripheral-blood stem cell transplantation. N Engl J Med 2000, 343:750–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Nichols CR, Catalano PJ, Crawford ED, et al.: Randomized comparison of cisplatin and etoposide and either bleomycin or ifosfamide in treatment of advanced disseminated germ cell tumors: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, Southwest Oncology Group and CALGB study. J Clin Oncol 1998, 1287–1293Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    deWit R, Stoter G, et al.: Four cycles of BEP vs four cycles of VIP in patients with intermediate-prognosis metastatic testicular non-seminoma: a randomized study of the EORTC Genitourinary Tract Cancer Cooperative Group. BrJCancer 1998, 78:828–32Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc S. Ernstoff
  • Christopher Tretter
  • John A. Heaney

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations