Reducing Exposures

Fuels and Stoves
  • Kirk R. Smith
Part of the Modern Perspectives in Energy book series (MPIE)


The previous seven chapters have shown that biofuels burned in household stoves in the developing world produce large emissions of health-damaging air pollutants; that high human exposures apparently result; and that significant ill-health may be the outcome. It is appropriate, therefore, in this last section of the book to examine what can be done to rectify this situation. In this chapter, the physical changes that can reduce emissions from burning biofuels in simple domestic stoves will be outlined. In Chapter 9, other “technical fixes” relating, for example, to alternative fuels, flue-gas cleaning, and improved ventilation will be examined. Finally, in Chapter 10, some of the social, economic, and policy aspects of exposure-reduction programs will be explored.


Emission Rate Emission Factor Combustion Efficiency Cooking Time Heat Transfer Efficiency 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kirk R. Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.East-West CenterHonoluluUSA

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