Application of Rheology in the Breakfast Cereal Industry
Ready-to-eat (RTE) cold breakfast cereal accounts for 75% of the total breakfast cereal consumption in the United States, nearing a value of $4.8 billion in 1986. These cereals are made mainly from corn, wheat, rice, and oats. A raw material blend is first plasticized with a combination of moisture and heat to gelatinize the native starch, and the gelatinized mass is then shaped and sized into the desired configuration. The product may be expanded and dried to develop structure and a crispy texture. Various processes such as flaking, puffing, extruding, shredding, toasting, frying, and coating are used to achieve specific product characteristics. Finally, the product may be fortified with vitamins and minerals. Based on differences in processing techniques, at least six basic types of RTE cereal are on the market: flaked, gun-puffed, oven-puffed, extruded, shredded, and granola-type products (Fast, 1987).
KeywordsSugar Starch Corn Anisotropy Foam
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