Advertisement

Correlates of Serotype in Cryptococcus Neoformans

  • J. E. Bennett
  • K. J. Kwon-Chung

Abstract

Serotypic differentiation of C. neoformans isolates was first reported by E. E. Evans in 1949, based upon agglutination reactions with absorbed rabbit serum (1). Evans studied only 12 isolates, 8 of which were designated as type A, 3 as type B and one as type C. Significantly, the author had collected his type B and C isolates from patients in California. It was later shown that only about one of 16 isolates from elsewhere in the USA are types B or C (2). A new serotype was reported in 1966 based upon fluorescent antibody studies with a human serum against one isolate of the new serotype (3). In 1968, existence of a fourth serotype was confirmed in five isolates, using agglutination by absorbed rabbit serum (4). Since this time, no new serotypes have been described.

Keywords

Cryptococcus Neoformans Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test Agglutination Reaction Syst Bacteriol Brom Thymol Blue 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Evans EE. An immunologic comparison of twelve strains of Cryptococcusneoformans. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 71:644–6, 1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bennett JE, Kwon-Chung KJ, Howard DH. Epidemiologic differences among serotypes of Cryptococcusneoformans. Am J Epidemiol 105:582–6, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vogel RA. The indirect fluorescent antibody test for the detection of antibody in human cryptococcal disease. J Infect Dis 116:573–80, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wilson DE, Bennett JE, Bailey JW. Serologic grouping of Cryptococcusneoformans. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 127:820–3, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bhattacharjee AK, Bennett JE, Glaudemans CPJ. Capsular polysaccharides of Cryptococcusneoformans. Rev Infect Dis 6:619–24, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kwon-Chung KJ, Bennett JE. Distribution of a and a mating types of Cryptococcusneoformans among natural and clinical isolates. Am J Epidemiol 108:337–40, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kwon-Chung KJ, Bennett JE, Rhodes JC. Taxonomic studies on Filobasidiella species and their anamorphs. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 48:25–38, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Aulakh HS, Straus SE, Kwon-Chung KJ. Genetic relatedness of Filobasidiella neoformans (Cryptococcus neoformans) and Filobasidiella bacillispora (Cryptococcus bacillisporus) as determined by DNA base composition and sequence homology studies. Int J Syst Bacteriol 31:97–103, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bennett JE, Kwon-Chung KJ, Theodore TS. Biochemical differences between serotypes of Cryptococcusneoformans. Sabouraudia 16:167–74, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Polacheck I, Kwon-Chung KJ. Creatinine metabolism in Cryptococcusneoformans and Cryptococcus bacillisporus. J Bacteriol 142:15–20, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kwon-Chung KJ, Bennett JE, Theodore TS. Cryptococcus bacillisporus sp. nov.: serotype B-C of Cryptococcusneoformans. Int J Syst Bacteriol 28:616–20, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kwon-Chung KJ, Polacheck I, Bennett JE. Improved diagnostic medium for separation of Cryptococcusneoformans var. neoformans (serotypes A and D) and Cryptococcusneoformans var. gattii (serotypes B and C). J Clin Microbiol 15:535–7, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Salkin IF, Hurd NJ. New medium for differentiation of Cryptococcusneoformans serotype pairs. J Clin Microbiol 15:169–71, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Min KH, Kwon-Chung KJ. Biochemical bases for the distinction of the two Cryptococcusneoformans varieties with CGB medium. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg, 261:471–80, 1986.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Safrin RE, Lancaster LA, Davis CE, Braude AI. Differentiation of Cryptococcusneoformans serotypes by isoenzyme electrophoresis. Am J Clin Pathol 86:204–8, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kwon-Chung KJ, Bennett JE. Epidemiologic differences between the two varieties of Cryptococcusneoformans. Am J Epidemiol 120:123–30, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    HJ Scholer personal communication.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mishra SK, Staib F, Folkens U, Fromtling RA. Serotypes of Cryptococcusneoformans strains isolated in Germany. J Clin Microbiol 14:106–7, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ikeda R, Shinoda T, Fukazawa Y, Kaufman L. Antigenic characterization of Cryptococcusneoformans serotypes and its application to serotyping of clinical isolates. J Clin Microbiol 16:22–9, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kwon-Chung KJ, Bennett JE. High prevalence of Cryptococcusneoformans var. gattii in tropical and subtropical regions. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg 257:213–8, 1984.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fromtling RA, Abruzzo GK, Bulmer GS. Cryptococcusneoformans: comparisons of in vitro antifungal susceptibilities of serotypes AD and BC. Mycopathologia 94:27–30, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rinaldi MG, Drutz DJ, Howell A, Sande MA, Wofsy CB, Hadley WK. Serotypes of Cryptococcusneoformans in patients with AIDS. J Infect Dis 153:642, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shimizu RY, Howard DH, Clancy MN. The distribution of Cryptococcusneoformans var. neoformans and C. neoformans var. gattii among patients at UCLA Medical Center (#F-39, p. 404). Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, 1986.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fournon M, Petat E, de Closets F, Himana TH, Barin F, du Sorbier CM. A propos de 11 souches de Cryptococcusneoformans isolees du L.C.R. de patients africains. Bull Soc Fr Mycol Med 15:85–8, 1986.Google Scholar
  25. Swinne D. Study of Cryptococcusneoformans varieties. Mykosen 27:137–41, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. E. Bennett
    • 1
  • K. J. Kwon-Chung
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute of Allergy and Infectious DiseasesNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations