Testing Animal Behavioral Teratogens

Designs and Methods
  • Ernest L. Abel


Mark Twain observed that “man is the only animal that blushes. Or needs to.” Trying to develop an animal model for blushing would therefore be pointless from both a physiological and a psychological perspective. Fortunately animals resemble humans in other ways, and these resemblances can be used to make inferences about the human condition. While such inferences are always tenuous, the more closely the results of animal studies resemble observations in humans, the more confident we can be in drawing other inferences from animals to humans. The bottom lines in animal research are (1) how similar animals are to humans in their reaction to the same conditions and, (2) how similar are the methods used in animal and human research.


Conditioned Stimulus Prenatal Exposure Reversal Learning Avoidance Learning Prenatal Alcohol Exposure 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ernest L. Abel
    • 1
  1. 1.Wayne State UniversityDetroitUSA

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