Flow and Transport in Systems with Shape Change: Mass Transfer in Electrochemical Systems
There are many important technological and engineering science applications in which a free and/or moving fluid and/or solid interface play a dominant role. Such systems encompass general static and dynamic applications encountered, for example, in capillarity, crystal growth, electrochemical plating and and corrosion, coating and polymer technology, separation processes, metal and glass forming processes and many other areas of engineering and science. Specifically, the equilibrium shape and stability of menisci between pairs of immiscible fluids in containers; coating flows in which a viscous fluid is deposited on a rigid, or flexible, substrate as commonly encountered in the manufacturing of photographic films and plate glass or the coating of paper; solidification processes which are commonly encountered in the material science of crystal growth, e.g., in open boat configuration, Czochralski or floating zone methods; extrusion of liquid from nozzles as encountered in the continuous production of fibers or curtain coating operations; domain shape changes associated with elect rod eposition and chemical etching processes. A quantitative description and solution of such problems has been allusive even in the simplest cases because of firstly, the inherent nonlinearities in the continuum equations and secondly, heat and/or mass (and sometimes concomitant heat) transport which often play a decisive role in the process.
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