• Edward I. Kandel


The hemihyperkinesias include several nosological forms—hemiathetosis, hemichorea, hemichoreoathetosis, hemidystonia, and hemiballism. Such an arbitrary grouping of different extrapyramidal diseases is justified by their important clinical characteristic, namely, involvement of only one half of the body, which is indicative of the localization of the lesion in the basal ganglia of the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. On this basis, one might also include hemiparkinsonism in this group. However, we do not consider this appropriate since hemiparkinsonism (see Chapter 6) is only a stage of the disease, with inevitable later generalization. All of these hemihyperkinesias, as a rule, do not have a progressive course or a tendency to spread to the other half of the body. Accordingly, hemihyperkinesias can be considered residua of inflammatory, traumatic, vascular, degenerative, or other injury of the brain.


Middle Cerebral Artery Internal Carotid Stereotactic Operation Extracranial Internal Carotid Artery Left Extremity 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward I. Kandel
    • 1
  1. 1.Neurosurgical Clinic, Institute of NeurologyAcademy of Medical Sciences of the USSRMoscowUSSR

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