Anatomy of Subcortical Structures Related to Stereotaxy

  • Edward I. Kandel


The concept of an extrapyramidal system was developed by O. and C. Vogt (Vogt and Oppenheim, 1911; Vogt and Vogt, 1919–1920, 1948), who emphasized that this system had no direct ties with the cortical motor centers but that its morphological substrate was the basal ganglia.


Substantia Nigra Subcortical Structure Frontal Section Afferent Pathway Efferent Pathway 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward I. Kandel
    • 1
  1. 1.Neurosurgical Clinic, Institute of NeurologyAcademy of Medical Sciences of the USSRMoscowUSSR

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