Recently, toxic nephropathy has emerged as an important segment of clinical renal disease. The high prevealence of nephrotoxic lesions reflects increased human exposure to a wide variety of drugs, chemicals, and biologic products; improved diagnostic capability; and enhanced awareness.


Acute Renal Failure Chronic Renal Failure Interstitial Nephritis Renal Tubular Acidosis Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Wing AJ, Brunner FP, Brynger H, Chantier C, Doncker-wolke RA, Jacobs C, Kramer P, Seiwood NH: Combined report on regular dialysis and transplantation in Europe IX, 1978. Proc Eur Dial Transpl Assoc 16:3–87, 1979.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kincaid-Smith P: Analgesic abuse and the kidney. Kidney Int 17:250–260, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gonwa TA, Hamilton RW, Buckalew VM Jr: Chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease in northwest North Carolina. Importance of analgesic-associated nephropathy. Arch Intern Med 141:462–465, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Weeden RP, D’Haese P, Ven de Vyver FL, Verpooten GA, DeBroe MA: Lead nephropathy. Am J Kidney Dis 8:380–386, 1986.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Appel GB, Neu HC: The nephrotoxicity of antimicrobial agents. N Engl J Med 296:663–670; 722–728; 784–787, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Madias NE, Harrington JT: Platinum nephrotoxicity. Am J Med 65:307–314, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Byrd L, Sherman RL: Radiocontrast-induced acute renal failure: A clinical and pathophysiologic review. Medicine 58:270–279, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kumin GD: Clinical nephrotoxicity of tobramycin and gen-tamicin. A prospective study. JAMA 244:1808–1810, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Finn WF: Environmental toxins and renal disease. J Clin Pharmacol 23:461–472, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Meyer BR, Fischbein A, Rosenman K, Lerman Y, Drayer DE, Reidenberg MM: Increased urinary enzyme excretion in workers exposed to nephrotoxic chemicals. Am J Med 76:989–998, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Maher JF: Clinicopathologic spectrum of drug nephrotoxicity. Adv Intern Med 30:295–316, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Maher JF: Toxic and irradiation nephropathies. In: LE Earley, CW Gottschalk, eds, Strauss and Welt’s Diseases of the Kidney. Little, Brown, Boston, pp 1431–1474, 1979.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Masuda Y, Nakayama N, Yamaguchi A, Murohashi M: Effects of diethylthiocarbonate and carbon disulfide on acute nephrotoxicity induced by furan, bromobenzene and cephaloridine in mice. Jpn J Pharmacol 34:221–229, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rush GF, Smith JH, Newton JF, Hook JB: Chemically induced nephrotoxicity: Role of metabolic activation. CRC Crit Rev Toxicol 13:99–160, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hricik DE, Browning PJ, Kopelman R, Goorno WE, Madias NE, Dzau VJ: Captopril-induced functional renal insufficiency in patients with bilateral renal-artery stenosis or renal-artery stenosis in a solitary kidney. N Engl J Med 308:373–376, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Coulie P, DePlaen JF, van Ypersele de Strihou C: Captopril-induced acute reversible renal failure. Nephron 35:108–111, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Funck-Brentano C, Chatellier G, Alexandre JM: Reversible renal failure after combined treatment with enalapril and furosemide in a patient with congestive heart failure. Br Heart J 55:596–598, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Seidelin R: Cimetidine and renal failure. Postgrad Med J 56:440–441, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Webb J: Renal failure associated with ergot poisoning. Br Med J 2:1355, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cronin RE, Erickson AM, de Torrente A, McDonald KM, Schrier RW: Norepinephrine-induced acute renal failure: A reversible ischemic model of aucte renal failure. Kidney Int 14:187–190, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kimberly RP, Bowden RE, Keiser HR, Plotz PH: Reduction of renal function by newer nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Am J Med 64:804–807, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lamp PP: Renal effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Heightened risk to the elderly. J Am Geriatric Soc 34:361–367, 1986.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Carmichael J, Shankel SW: Effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on prostaglandins and renal function. Am J Med 78:992–1000, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Henrich WL: Nephrotoxicity of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents. Am J Kidney Dis 2:478–484, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Blackshear JL, Napier JS, Davidman M, Stillman MT: Renal complications of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: Identification and monitoring of those at risk. Semin Arthritis Rheum 14:163–175, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Garella S, Matarese RA: Renal effects of prostaglandins and clinical adverse effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents. Medicine 61:165–181, 1985.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Adams DH, Howie AJ, Michael J, McConkey B, Bacon PA, Adu D: Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and renal failure. Lancet 1:57–59, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Clive DM, Staff JS: Renal syndromes associated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. N Engl J Med 310:563–572, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hart D, Ward M, Lifschitz MD: Suprofen-related nephrotoxicity. A distinct clinical syndrome. Ann Intern Med 106:235–238, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fauci AS, Haynes BF, Katz P: The spectrum of vasculitis: Clinicial, pathologic, immunologic and therapeutic considerations. Ann Intern Med 89:660–676, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Antonovych TT: Drug-induced nephropathies. Pathol Annu 19 (Pt 2):165–196, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zimmerman SW, Groehler K, Beirne GJ: Hydrocarbon exposure and chronic glomerulonephritis. Lancet 2:199–201, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Beirne GL, Brennan JT: Glomerulonephritis associated with hydrocarbon solvents. Arch Environ Health 25:365–369, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gavaghan TE, McNaught PJ, Ralston M, Hayes JM: Peni-cillamine-induced “Goodpasture’s syndrome”: Successful treatment of a fulminant case. Aust NZ J Med 11:261–265, 1981.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ehrenreich T, Yunis SL, Chrug J: Membranous nephropathy following exposure to volatile hydrocarbons. Environmental Res 14:35–45, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    von Scheele C, Althoff P, Kempi U, Schelin U: Nephrotic syndrome due to subacute glomerulonephritis—association with hydrocarbon exposure? Acta Med Scand 200:427–429, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Schreiner GE, Maher JF: Toxic nephropathy. Am J Med 38:408–449, 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zimmerman SW, Norbach DH: Nephrotoxic effects of long-term carbon tetrachloride administration in rats. Arch Pathol Lab Med 104:94–99, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rao TKS, Nicastri AD, Friedman EA: Natural history of heroin-associated nephropathy. N Engl J Med 290:19–23, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Alarcon Segovia D: Drug induced lupus syndromes. Mayo Clin Proc 44:664–681, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Northway JD, West CD: Successful therapy of trimetha-dione nephrosis with prednisone and cyclophosphamide. J Pediat 71:259–263, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bergstrand A, Bergstrand CG, Engstrom N, Herrlin KM: Renal histology during treatment with oxazolidine-diones (tremethadione, ethadione and paramethadione). Pediatrics 30:601–607, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lange K: Nephropathy induced by D-penicillamine. Contrib Nephrol 10:63–74, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jaffe IA, Treser G, Suzuki Y, Ehrenreich T: Nephropathy induced by D-penicillamine. Ann Intern Med 69:549–556, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sternlieb I: Penicillamine and the nephrotic syndrome. JAMA 198:1311–1312, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bacon PA, Tribe CR, MacKenzie JC, Verrier Jones J, Cumining RH, Amer B: Penicillamine nephropathy in rheumatoid arthritis: A clinicial pathological and immunological study. Q J Med 45:661–684, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Luke RG: Proteinuria during penicillamine therapy for cys-tinuria. Postgrad Med J 44 (Suppl 6):21–23, 1968.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Silverberg DS, Kidd EG, Shnitka TK, Ulan RA: Gold nephropathy: A clinical and pathologic study. Arthritis Rheum 13:812–825, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Palosuo T, Provost TT, Milgram F: Gold nephropathy: Serologic data suggesting an immune complex disease. Clin Exp Immunol 25:311–318, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Strauss J, Pardo V, Koss MN, Griswold W, Mcintosh RM: Nephropathy associated with sickle cell anemia: An autologous immune complex nephritis. I. Studies on nature of glomerular-bound antibody and antigen identification in a patient with sickle cell disease and immune deposit glomerulonephritis. Am J Med 58:382–387, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Billingsley LM, Stevens MB: The relationship between D-penicillamine induced proteinuria and prior gold nephropathy. Johns Hopkins Med J 148:64–67, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Merle LJ, Reidenberg MM, Camacho MT, Jones BR, Drayer DE: Renal injury in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with gold. Clin Pharmacol Ther 28:216–222, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Robbins G, McIllmurrary MB: Acute renal failure due to gold. Postgrad Med J 56:366–367, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kelchner J, Mcintosh JR, Boedecker E, Guggenheim S, Mcintosh RM: Experimental autologous immune deposit nephritis in rats associated with mercuric chloride administration. Experientia 32:1204–1208, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kazantzis G, Schiller KFR, Asscher AW, Drew RG: Albuminuria and the nephrotic syndrome following exposure to mercury and its compounds. Q J Med 31:403–418, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Cameron JS, Trounce FR: Membranous glomerulonephritis and the nephrotic syndrome appearing during mersalyl therapy. Guy’s Hosp Rep 114:101–107, 1965.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Beattie JW: Nephrotic syndrome following sodium bismuth tartrate therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 12:144–146, 1953.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ellis JT: Glomerular lesions and the nephrotic syndrome in rabbits given iron oxide intravenously. J Exp Med 103:127–144, 1956.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Horak E, Sunderman FW Jr: Nephrotoxicity of nickel car-bonyl in rats. Ann Clin Lab Sci 10:425–431, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Brezin JH, Katz SM, Schwartz AB, Chinitz JL: Reversible renal failure and nephrotic syndrome associated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. N Engl J Med 301:1271–1273, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gary NE, Dodelson R, Eisinger RP: Indomethacin-associated acute renal failure. Am J Med 69:135–136, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sfachura I, Joyakumar S, Bourke E: T and B lymphocyte subsets in fenoprofen nephropathy. Am J Med 75:9–16, 1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ferris TF, Morgan WS, Levitin H: Nephrotic syndrome caused by probenicid. N Engl J Med 265:381–383, 1961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Maher JF: Toxic disorders of the glomerulus. In: J Zabriskie, H Villaroel Jr, EL Becker, eds, Perspectives in Clinical Immunology II: Kidney. Clinical Immunology of the Kidney. John Wiley, New York, pp 293–306, 1982.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Alexander CS, Hunt VR: Evidence against immune mechanism in aminucleoside nephrosis in rats. J Lab Clin Med 62:103–108, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Seiler MW, Rennke HG, Venkstachalam MA, Cotran RS: Pathogenesis of polycation-induced alterations (“fusion”) of glomerular epithelium. Lab Invest 36:48–61, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Robin AE, Crowson CN: Mercury nephrotoxicity in the rat. II. Investigation of intracellular site of mercury nephrotoxicity by correlated serial time histologic and histoenzymatic studies. Am J Path 41:485–499, 1962.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Peters JP, Eisenham AJ, Kydd DM: Mercury poisoning. Am J Med Sci 185:149–171, 1933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Burgat-Sacaze V, Braun JP, Rico A, Benard P, Eghbali B: Methoxyethyl-mercury nephrotoxicity: Effects on enzymur-ia and kidney function. Arch Toxicol 43:277–231, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Longcope WT, Leutscher JA Jr, Calkins E, Grob D, Bush SW, Eisenberg H: Clinical uses of 2,3-dimercaptopropanol (BAL). XI. The treatment of acute mercury poisoning by BAL. J Clin Invest 25:557–567, 1946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Doolan PD, Hess WC, Kyle LH: Acute renal insufficiency due to bichloride of mercury. Observations on gastrointestinal hemorrhage and BAL therapy. N Engl J Med 249:273–276, 1953.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kostyniak PJ, Clarkson TW, Abbasi AH: An extracorporeal complexing hemodialysis system for the treatment of methylmercury poisoning II. In vivo applications in the dog. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 203:253–263, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Leumann EP, Brandenberger H: Hemodialysis in a patient with acute mercuric cyanide intoxication. Concentrations of mercury in blood dialysate, urine, vomitus and feces. Clin Toxicol 11:301–308, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Klonne DR, Johnson DR: Amelioration of mercuric chloride-induced acute renal failure by dithiothreitol. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 70:459–466, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Maher JF: Acute renal failure complicating intoxication. In: LH Haddad, JF Winchester, eds, Clinical Management of Poisoning. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 170–184, 1983.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Blachley JD, Hill JB: Renal and electrolyte disturbances associated with cisplatin. Ann Intern Med 95:628–632, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Jones BR, Bhalla RB, Mladek J, Kaleya RN, Gralla RJ, Alcock NW, Schwartz MK, Young CW, Reidenberg MM: Comparison of methods of evaluating nephrotoxicity of cisplatinum. Clin Pharmacol Ther 27:557–562, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Schilsky RL, Anderson T: Hypomagnesemia and renal magnesium wasting in patients receiving cisplatin. Ann Intern Med 90:929–931, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Vogl SE, Zaravinos T, Kaplan BH: Toxicity of cisdiamminedichloroplatinum II given in a two hour regimen of diuresis and hydration. Cancer 45:11–15, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Daley-Yates PT, McBrien DCH: Enhancement of cisplatin nephrotoxicity by probenecid. Cancer Treat Rep 68:445–446, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Sharma RP: Cisplatinum: Effect of zinc acetate pretreatment on cellular uptake and interactions with cytosolic ligands. Toxicology 32:75–84, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Prestayko AW, Luft FC, Einhorn L, Crooke ST: Cisplatin pharmacokinetics in a patient with renal dysfunction. Med Pediat Oncol 5:183–188, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Goldstein RS, Mayor GH: Minireview: The nephrotoxicity of cisplatin. Life Sci 32:685–690, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Dentino M, Luft FC, Yum MN, Williams SD, Einhorn LH: Long term effect of cis-diamminedichloride platinum (CDDP) on renal function and structure in man. Cancer 41:1274–1281, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Vallee BL, Ulmer DD, Wacker WEC: Arsenic toxicology and biochemistry. Arch Indust Health 21:132–151, 1960.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Teitelbaum DT, Kier LC: Arsine poisoning. Report of five cases in the petroleum industry and a discussion of the indications for exchange transfusion and hemodialysis. Arch Environ Hlth 19:133–143, 1969.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Giberson A, Vaziri ND, Mirahadami K, Rosen SM: Hemodialysis of acute arsenic intoxication with transient renal failure. Arch Intern Med 136:1303–1304, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gerhardt RE, Hudson JB, Rao RN, Sobel RE: Chronic renal insufficiency from cortical necrosis induced by arsenic poisoning. Arch Intern Med 138:1267–1269, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Burr RE, Botto AM, Beaver DL: Isolation and analysis of renal bismuth inclusions. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 7:588–591, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ryan R, McNeil JS, Flamenbaum W, Nagle R: Uranyl nitrate induced acute renal failure in the rat. Effect of varying doses and saline loading. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 143:289–296, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Sanghvi LM, Sharma R, Misra SN, Samuel KC: Sulfhemo-globinemia and acute renal failure after copper sulfate poisoning; report or two fatal cases. Arch Path 63:172–175, 1975.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Wetherill SF, Guarino MJ, Cox RW: Acute renal failure associated with barium chloride poisoning. Ann Intern Med 95:187–188, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Lucke B: Lower nephron nephrosis. The renal lesions of crush syndrome, of burns, transfusions and other conditions affecting the lower segment of the nephrons. Milit Surg 99:371–396, 1946.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Franchini I, Mutti A, Cavatorta A, Corradi A, Cosi A, Olivetti G, Borghetti A: Nephrotoxicity of chromium. Contub Nephrol 10:98–110, 1978.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Charlas R, Benabadji A: Nephrite azotemieue au cours du traitment par l’antimoine d’un case de leishmanoise viscerale infantil. Maroc Med 41:1180–1182,1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ebina Y, Okada S, Hamazaki S, Midorikawa O: Liver, kidney and central nervous toxicity of aluminum given in-traperitoneally to rats: A multiple-dose subchronic study using aluminum nitrolotriacetate. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 75:211–218, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Thompson J: Ferrous sulfate poisoning. Its incidence, symptomatology, treatment and prevention. Br Med J 1:645–646, 1950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Batey R, Scott J, Jain S, Sherlock S: Acute renal insufficiency occurring during intravenous desferrioxamine therapy. Scand J Haematol 22:277–279, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Oliver LD, Mehta R, Sarles HE: Acute renal failure following administration of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Tex Med 80(2):40–42, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Laug EP, Calvery HP, Morris HJ, Woodard G: The toxicity of some glycols and derviatives. J Indust Hyg Toxicol 21:173–201, 1939.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Schreiner GE, Maher JF, Marc-Acurele J, Knowlan D, Alvo M: Ethylene glycol—two indications for hemodialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 5:81–85, 1959.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Guild WR, Young JV, Merrill JP: Anuria due to carbon tetrachloride intoxication. Ann Intern Med 48:1221–1227, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Stewart RD, Boettner EA, Southwerth RR, Cerny JC: Acute carbon tetrachloride intoxication. JAMA 183:994–997, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Baerg RD, Kimberg DV: Centrilobular hepatic necrosis and acute renal failure in solvent sniffers. Ann Intern Med 73:713–720, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Halevy J, Pitlik S, Rosenfeld J, Eitan B: 1,1,1,-trichloroethane intoxication: A case report with transient liver and renal damage. Review of the literature. Clin Toxicol 16:467–472, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Streicher HZ, Gabow PA, Moss AH, Kono D, Kaehny WD: Syndromes of toluene sniffing in adults. Ann Intern Med 94:758–762, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lang EK, Foreman J, Schlegel JU, Leslie C, List A, McCormick P: The incidence of contrast medium acute tubular necrosis following arteriography. Radiology 138:203206, 1981.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Gomes AS, Baker JD, Martin-Paredo V, Dixon SM, Takiff H, Machleder HI, Moore WS: Acute renal dysfunction after major angiography. Am J Roentgenol 145:1249–1253, 1985.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Tornquist C, Almén T, Golman K, Hotâs S: Renal function following nephroangiography with metrizarnide and iohexal. Effects on renal blood flow, glomerular permeability and filtration rate and diuresis in dogs. Acta Radio (Stockholm) 26:483–489, 1985.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Taliercio CP, Vlietstra RE, Fisher LD, Burnett JC: Risks for renal dysfunction with cardiac angiography. Ann Intern Med 104:501–504, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Engle JE, Schoolwerth AC: Additive neprotoxicity from roentgenographic contrast media; its occurrence in phena-zopyridine-induced acute renal failure. Arch Intern Med 141:784–785, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Winearls CG, Ledingham JGG, Dixon AJ: Acute renal failure precipitated by radiographic contrast medium in a patient with rhabdomyolysis. Br Med J 2:1603, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Older RA, Korobkin M, Cleeve DM, Schaaf R, Thompson W: Contrast-induced acute renal failure: Persistent nephrogram as clue to early detection. Am J Roentgenol 134:339–342, 1980.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Mudge GH: Nephrotoxicity of urographic radiocontrast drugs. Kidney Int 18:540–552, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Forrest JB, Howards SS, Gillenwater JY: Osmotic effects of intravenous contrast agents on renal function. J Urol 125:147–150, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Ihle BU, Byrnes CA, Simenhoff ML: Acute renal failure due to interstitial nephritis resulting from radio-contrast agents. Aust NZ J Med 12:630–632, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Healy JK: Acute oliguric renal failure associated with multiple myeloma. Br Med J 1:1126–1130, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Setter JG, Maher JF, Schreiner GE: Acute renal failure following cholecystography. JAMA 184:102–110, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Malt RA, Olken HG, Goade WJ Jr: Renal tubular necrosis after oral cholecystography. Arch Surg 87:743–746, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Canales CO, Smith GH, Robinson JC, Remmers AR Jr, Sarles HE: Acute renal failure after the adminstration of iopanoic acid as a cholecystographic agent. N Engl J Med 281:89–91, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Hansson R, Lindholm T: Elimination of hypaque (sodium-3,5 diacetamido -2,4,6 triiodobenzoate) and the effect of hemodialysis in anuria. A clinical study and experimental investigation on rabbits. Acta Med Scand 174:611–620, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Bennett WM, Aronoff GR, Morrison G, Golper TA, Pulliam J, Wolfson M, Singer I: Drug prescribing in renal failure: Dosing guidelines for adults. Am J Kidney Dis 3:155–193, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Maher JF: Pharmacologic aspects of regular dialysis treatment. In:W Drukker, FM Parsons, JF Maher, eds, Replacement of Renal Function by Dialysis. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, pp 749–797, 1982.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Kaloyanides GJ, Pastoriza-Munoz E: Aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity. Kidney Int 185:571–582, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Cronin RE: Aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity: Pathogenesis and prevention Clin Nephrol 11:251–256, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Humes HD, Weinberg JM, Knauss TC: Clinical and pathophysiologic aspects of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity. Am J Kidney Dis 2:5–29, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Whelton A: Therapeutic initiatives for the avoidance of aminoglycoside toxicity. J Clin Pharmacol 25:67–81, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Smith CR, Moor RD, Leitman RD: Studies of risk factors for aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity. Am J Kidney Dis 8:308–313, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Luft FC, Block R, Sloan RS, Yum MN, Costello R, Maxwell DR: Comparative nephrotoxicity of aminoglycoside antibiotics in rats. J Infect Dis 138:541–545, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    DeBroe ME, Paulus GJ, Veropooten GA, Roels F, Buyssens N, Weeden R, Van Hoof F, Tulkens PM: Early effects of gentamicin, tobramycin and amikacin on the human kidney. Kidney Int 25:643–652, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Gary NE, Buzzeo L, Salaki J, Eisinger RP: Gentamicin-associated acute renal failure. Arch Intern Med 136:1101 – 1104, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Tulkens PM: Experimental study of nephrotoxicity of aminoglycoside at low doses. Mechanisms and perspectives. Am J Med 80 (Suppl 6B):105–114, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Fillastre JP, Henet J, Tulkens P, Morin JP, Viotte G, Oiler B, Godin M: Comparative nephrotoxicity of four aminoglycosides: Biochemical and ultrastructural modifications of lysosomes. Adv Nephrol 2:253–275, 1982.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Brion B, Barge J, Godefroy I, Dromer F, Dobois C, Contrepois A, Carbon C: Gentamicin, netilmicin, dibekacin and amikacin nephrotoxicity and its relation to tubular reabsorption in rabbits. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 25:168–172, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Brogard JM, Comte F, Spach MO: Nephrotoxicity of aminoglycoside. Effects on pharmacokinetics and prevention. Contrib Nephrol 42:182–195, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Bennett WM, Plamp CE, Gilbert DN, Parker RA, Porter GA: The influences of dosage regimen on experimental gentamicin nephrotoxicity: Dissociation of peak serum levels from renal failure. J Infect Dis 140:576–580, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Sethi K, Diamond LH: Aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity and its predictability. Nephron 27:265–270, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Schentag JJ, Gengo FM, Plaut ME, Danner D, Mangione A, Jusko WJ: Urinary casts as an indicator of renal tubular damage in patients receiving aminoglycosides. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 16:468–474, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Sobern L, Bowman RL, Pastoriza-Munoz E, Kaloyanides GJ: Comparative nephrotoxicities of gentamicin, netilmicin and tobramycin in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 210:334–343, 1979.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Daschner FD, Just HM, Jansen W, Lorber R: Netilmicin versus tobramycin in multicentre studies. J Antimicrob Chemother 13 (Suppl A):37–42, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Engle JE, Abt AB, Schneck DW, Scohoolwerth AC: Netilmicin and tobramycin. Comparison of nephrotoxicity in dogs. Invest Urol 17:98–102, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Wade JC, Smith CR, Petty BG, Lipsky JJ, Conrad G, Ellner J, Lietman PS: Cephalothin plus an aminoglycoside is more nephrotoxic than methicillin plus an aminoglycoside. Lancet 2:604–606, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Bennett WM, Wood CA, Houghton DC, Gilbert DN: Modification of experimental aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity. Am J Kidney Dis 8:292–296, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Roxe DM: Toxic nephropathy from diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Review and commentary. Am J Med 69:759–766, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Bennett WM, Pulliam JP, Porter GA, Houghton DC: Modification of experimental gentamicin nephrotoxicity by selective parathyroidectomy. Am J Physiol 249:F832–F835, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Elliott WC, Patchin DS, Jones DB: Effect of parathyroid hormone activity on gentamicin nephrotoxicity. J Lab Clin Med 109:48–54, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Cronin RE, Newman JA: Protective effect of thyroxine but not parathyroidectomy on gentaimicin nephrotoxicity. Am J Physiol 248:F332–F339, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Ho PWL, Pien FD, Kominami N: Massive amikacin “overdose.” Ann Intern Med 91:227–228, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Maher JF: The prognosis of toxic renal lesions. Proc 8th Int Congr Nephrol 8:761–767, 1981.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Moellering RC Jr, Swartz MN: The newer cephalosporins. N Engl J Med 294:24–28, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Barza M: The nephrotoxicity of cephalosporins: An overview. J Infect Dis 137:S60–S73, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Silverblatt F: Pathogenesis of nephrotoxicity of cephalosporins and aminoglycosides: A review of current concepts. Rev Infect Dis 4 (Suppl 5):S60–S65, 1982.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Boyd JF, Butcher BT, Stewart GT: The nephrotoxicity and histology of cephaloridine and its polymers in rats. Br J Exp Pathol 52:503–516, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Linton AL, Bailey R, Turnbull DI: Relative nephrotoxicity of cephalosporin antibiotics in an animal model. Can Med Assoc J 107:414–416, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Carling PC, Idelson BA, Casano A, Alexander EA, McCabe WR: Nephrotoxicity associated with cephalothin adminstration. Arch Intern Med 135:797–801, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Fung-Herrere CG, Mulvaney WP: Cephalexin nephrotoxicity. Reversible nonoliguric acute renal failure and hepato-toxicity associated with cephalexin therapy. JAMA 299:318–319, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Tune B, Fravert D: Cephalosporin nephrotoxicity. Transport, cytotoxicity and mitochondrial toxicity of cephalogly-cin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 215:186–190, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Tune BM, Fravert D: Mechanisms of cephalosporin nephrotoxicity: A comparison of cephaloridine and cephaloglycine. Kidney Int 18:591–600, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Jawetz E: Polymyxin, Colistin and bacitracin. Pediatr Clin North Am 8:1057–1071, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Kock-Weser J, Sidel VW, Federman EB, Kanarek P, Finer DC, Eaton AE: Adverse effects of sodium colistimethate. Manifestations and specific reaction rates during 317 courses of therapy. Ann Intern Med 72:857–868, 1970.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Shils ME: Renal disease and the metabolic effects of tetracycline. Ann Intern Med 58:389–408, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Philips ME, Eastwood JB, Curtis JR, Gower PE, de Wardener HE: Tetracycline poisoning in renal failure. Br Med J 2:149–151, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Orr LH Jr, Rudisill E Jr, Brodkin R, Hamilton RW: Exacerbation of renal failure associated with doxycycline. Arch Intern Med 138:793–794, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Frimpter GW, Timpanelli AE, Eisenmenger WJ, Stein HS, Ehrlich LI: Reversible Fanconi syndrome caused by degraded tetracycline. JAMA 184:111–113, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Singer I, Rotenberg D: Decmeclocycline-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. In vivo and in vitro studies. Ann Intern Med 79:679–683, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Oster JR, Epstein M, Ulano HB: Deterioration of renal function with demeclocycline adminstration. Curr Ther Res 20:794–801, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Lehr D: Clinical toxicity of sulfonamides. Ann NY Acad Sci 69:417–447, 1957.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Kalowski S, Nanra RS, Mathew TH, Kincaid-Smith P: Deterioration in renal function in association with cotrimoxazole therapy. Prog Biochem Parmacol 9:129–140, 1974.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Skimming LH, Knies PT, Anthony MA, Melerango ES: Hemolytic anemia caused by sulfamethoxypridazine. Report of a case successfully treated by hemodialysis. Ohio Med J 57:280–281, 1961.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Kawamura T, Yagi N, Sugawara H, Yamahata K, Takada M: Efficacy of hemodialysis and the effects of certain displacing agents on plasma protein binding of sulfamethoxazole and sulfaphenazole in patients with chronic renal failure. Chem Parmacol Bull (Tokyo) 28:268–276, 1980.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Burgess JL, Birchall R: Nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B with emphasis on changes in tubular function. Am J Med 53:77–84, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Cheng JT, Witty RT, Robinson RR, Yarger WE: Amphotericin B nephrotoxicity: Increased renal resistance and tubule permeability. Kidney Int 22:626–633, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Gerkens JF, Branch RA: The influence of sodium status and furosemide on canine acute amphotericin B nephrotoxicity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 214:306–311, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Takacs FJ, Tomkiewicz AM, Merrill JP: Amphotericin B toxicity with irreversible renal failure. Ann Intern Med 59:716–724, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Heidemann HT, Gerkens JF, Spickard WA, Jackson EK, Branch RA: Amphotericin B nephrotoxocity in humans decreased by salt repletion. Am J Med 75:476–481, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Appel GB, Given DB, Levine LR, Copper GL: Vancomycin and the kidney. Am J Kidney Dis 8:75–80, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Koffler A, Friedler RM, Massry SG: Acute renal failure due to nontraumatic rhabdomolysis. Ann Intern Med 85:23–28, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Cadnapaphornchai P, Taher S, McDonald FD: Acute drug-associated rhabdomolysis: An examination of its diverse renal manifestations and complications. Am J Med Sci 280:66–72, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Knochel JP: Rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria. Semin Nephrol 1:75–86, 1981.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Jennings AE, Levey AS, Harrington JT: Amoxapine-associated acute renal failure. Arch Intern Med 143:1525–1527, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Muehrcke RC: Acute Renal Failure: Diagnosis and Management. CV Mosby, Louis MO, 1969.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Takahashi H, Tsukada T: Triamterene-induced immune haemolytic anaemia with acute intravascular haemolysis and acute renal failure. Scand J Hameatol 23:169–176, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Prescott LF, Illingworth RN, Critchley JAJH, Frazer I, Stirling ML: Acute haemolysis and renal failure after nomifensine overdosage. Br Med J 2:1392–1393. 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Alano F, Webster GD: Acute renal failure due to phena-zopyridine (Pyridium). Ann Intern Med 72:89–91, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Maher JF: Effect of toxins on the kidney. Contrib Nephrol 7:42–68, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Sadoff L: Nephrotoxicity of streptozoticin (NSC 85998). Cancer Chemother Rep 54:457–459, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Nicholls DP, Yasin M: Acute renal failure from carba-mazepine. Br Med J 4:490, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Haller JA, Randell HT Jr, Stowens D, Rubel WF: Renal toxicity of polybrene in open heart surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 44:486–493, 1962.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Myers BD: Cyclosporine nephrotoxicity. Kidney Int 30:964–974, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Thiel G: Experimental cyclosporine A nephrotoxicity: A summary of the International Workshop (Basle, April 24–26, 1985). Clin Nephrol 25 (Suppl 1):S205–210, 1986.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Hammer RW, Verani R, Weinman EJ: Mitomycin-associated renal failure; case report and review. Arch Intern Med 143:803–807, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Henderson IS, Beattie TJ, Kennedy AC: Dopamine hydrochloride in oliguric states. Lancet 2:827–828, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Tiller DJ, Mudge GH: Pharmacologic agents used in the management of acute renal failure. Kidney Int 18:700–711, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Heptinstall RH: Interstitial nephritis: A brief review. Am J Path 83:214–236, 1976.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Linton AL, Clark WF, Driedger AA, Turnbull DI, Lindsay RM: Acute interstitial nephritis due to drugs. Review of the literature with a report of nine cases. Ann Intern Med 93:735–741, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Mery J, Morel-Maroger L: Acute interstitial nephritis. A hypersensitivity reaction to drugs. Proc 6th Int Congr Nephrol 6:524–529, 1976.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Kleinhencht D, Kanfer A, Morel-Maroger L, Mery JP: Immunologically mediated drug-induced acute renal failure. Contr Nephrol 10:42–52, 1978.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Adler SG, Cohen AH, Border WA: Hypersensitivity phenomena and the kidney: Role of drugs and environmental agents. Am J Kidney Dis 5:75–96, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Hande KR, Noone RM, Stone WJ: Severe allopurinol toxicity. Description and guidelines for prevention in patients with renal insufficiency. Am J Med 76:47–56, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Woodroffe AJ, Thomson NM, Meadows R, Lawrence JR: Nephropathy associated with methicillin administration. Aust NZ J Med 1:256–261, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Galpin JE, Shinaberger JH, Stanley TM, Blumenkrantz MJ, Bayer AS, Friedman GS, Montogmerie JZ, Guze LB, Coburn JW, Glassock RJ: Acute interstitial nephritis due to methicillin. Am J Med 65:756–765, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Harmon WE, Cohen HJ, Schneeberger EE, Grupe WE: Chronic renal failure in children treated with methyl CCNU. N Engl J Med 300:1200–1203, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Schacht RG, Feiner HD, Gallo GR, Lieberman A, Baldwin DS: Nephrotoxicity of nitrosureas. Cancer 48:1328–1334, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Raymond JR: Nephrotoxicities of antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agents. Curr Probl Cancer 8:1–32, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Healy HG, Clarkson AR: Renal complications of cytotoxic therapy. Aust NZ J Med 13:431–539, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Burke JF, Laucius F, Brodovsky HS, Soriano RZ: Doxorubicin hydrochloride-associated renal failure. Arch Intern Med 137:385–388, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Giroux L, Smeesters C, Boury F, Faure MP, Jean G: Adriamycin and adriamycin-DNA nephrotoxicity in rats. Lab invest 50:190–196, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Farebrother DA, Hatfield P, Simmonds HA, Cameron JS, Jones AS, Cadenhead A: Experimental crystal nephropathy (one year study in the pig). Clin Nephrol 4:243–250, 1975.Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Nanra RS: Clinical and pathological aspects of analgesic nephropathy. Br J Clin Pharmacol 10:359S–363S, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Gault MH, Wilson DR: Analgesic nephropathy in Canada. Clinical syndrome, management, and outcome. Kidney Int 13:58–63, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Buckalew VM, Schey HM: Analgesic nephropathy: A significant cause of morbidity in the United States. Am J Kidney Dis 7:164–168, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Maher JF: Renal failure in America is infrequently due to analgesic abuse. Am J Kidney Dis 7:169–173, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Cove-Smith JR, Knapp MS: Analgesic nephropathy: An important cause of chronic renal failure. Q J Med 47:49–69, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Bengtsson U: Prevention of renal disease. Proc Eur Dial Transpl Assoc 16:466–471, 1979.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Bluemle LW, Goldberg M: Renal accumulation of salicylate and phenacetin: Possible mechanisms in the nephropathy of analgesic abuse. J Clin Invest 47:2507–2513, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Wainscoat JS, Finn R: Possible role of laxatives in analgesic nephropathy. Br Med J 4:697–698, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Dubach VC, Levy PS, Rosner B, Baumeler HR, Mueller A, Peier A, Ehrensperger T: Relation between regular intake of phenacetin-containing analgesics and laboratory evidence for Urorenal disorders in a female working population of Switzerland. Lancet 1:539–543, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Lornoy W, Morelle V, Becaus I, Fonteyne E, Mestdagh J, Thienpont L, Rollier A, Van Steenberge R, D’Haenens P: Malignant uroepithelial tumors of the upper urinary tract in sixteen patients with analgesic nephropathy. Acta Clin Belg 35:140–147, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Emmerson BT: Chronic lead nephropathy. Kidney Int 4:15, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Morgan JM, Hartley MW, Miller RE: Nephropathy in chronic lead poisoning. Arch Intern Med 118:17–29, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Emmerson BT: Chronic lead nephropathy, the diagnostic use of calcium EDTA and the association with gout. Aust Ann Med 12:310–324, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Goyer RA, May P, Cates MM, Krigman MR: Lead and protein content of isolated intranuclear inclusion bodies from kidneys of lead-poisoned rats. Lab Invest 22:245–251, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Smith Pederson R: Lead poisoning treated with haemodialy-sis. Scand J Urol Nephrol 12:189–190, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Kazantzis G: Cadmium nephropathy. Contr Nephrol 16:161–166, 1979.Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Adams RG, Harrison JF, Scott P: The development of cadmium-induced proteinuria, impaired renal function and osteomalacia in alkaline battery workers. Q J Med 38:425–443, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Friberg L: Cadmium and the kidney. Environ Health Persp 54:1–11, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Roles HA, Lauverys RR, Bucket JP, Bernard A: Environmental exposure to cadmium and renal function of aged women in three areas of Belgium. Environ Res 24:117–130, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Smith TJ, Anderson RJ, Reading JC: Chronic cadmium exposures associated with kidney function effects. Am J Indust Med 1:319–337, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Barnett RN, Broun DS, Cadorna CB, Baker GP: Beryllium disease with death from renal failure. Conn Med 25:142–147, 1961.Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Luxton RW: Radiation nephritis: A long-term study of 54 patients. Lancet 2:1221–1224, 1961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Keane WF, Crosson JT, Staley NA, Anderson WR, Shapiro FL: Radiation-induced renal disease. Am J Med 60:127–137, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Churg J, Madrazo A: Radiation nephritis. Perspect Nephrol Hypertens 6:83–96, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Rosen S, Swerdlow MA, Muehrcke RC, Pirani CL: Radiation nephritis. Light and electron microscopic observations. Am J Clin path 41:487–502, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Frascino JA, Vanamee P, Rosen PP: Renal oxalosis and azotemia after methoxyflurane anesthesia. N Engl J Med 283:673–679, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Maher JF, Schreiner GE: Metabolic problems related to prolonged maintenance of life in oliguria. JAMA 176:393–403, 1961.Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Schwartz RD, Wesley JR, Somermeyer MG, Lau K: Hyperoxaluria and renal insufficiency due to ascorbic acid administration during total parenteral nutrition. Ann Intern Med 100:530–531, 1984.Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Lawton JM, Conway LT, Crosson JT, Smith CL, Abraham PA: Acute oxalate nephropathy after massive ascorbic acid administration. Arch Intern Med 148:950–951, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Ludwig B, Schindler E, Bohl J, Pfeiffer J, Kremer G: Reno-cerebral oxalosis induced by xylitol. Neuroradiology 26:517–521, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Maher JF, Rath CE, Schreiner GE: Hyperuricemia complicating leukemia: Treatment with allopurinol and dialysis. Arch Intern Med 123:198–200, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Paddack GL, Wahl RC, Holman RE, Schorr WJ, Lacher JW: Acute renal failure associated with ticrynafen. JAMA 243:764–765, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Orlandini G, Brognoli M: Acute renal failure and treatment with sulfinpyrazone. Clin Nephrol 20:161–162, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Randall RE, Strauss MB, McNeely WF: The milk-alkali syndrome. Arch Intern Med 107:163–181, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Chaplin H Jr, Clark LD, Ropes MW: Vitamin D intoxication. Am J Med Sci 221:369–378, 1951.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Christansen C, Rodbro P, Christensen MS, Hartnack B, Transbol I: Deterioration of renal function during treatment of chronic renal failure with 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol. Lancet 2:700–703, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Pitman SW, Frei E III: Weekly methotrexate-calcium leucovorin rescue: Effects of alkalinization on nephrotoxicity; pharmacokinetics in the CNS; and use in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Cancer Treatment Rep 61:695–701, 1977.Google Scholar
  246. 246.
    Abelson HT, Fosberg MT, Beardsley GP, Goorin AM, Gorka C, Link M, Link D: Methotrexate-induced renal impairment: Clinical studies and rescue from systemic toxicity with high dose lecovorin and thymidine. J Clin Oncol 1:208–16, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Spiegel DM, Lau K: Acute renal failure and coma secondary to acyclovir therapy. JAMA 255:1882–1883, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Kaufman SA, McLellan P: Urinary tract complications of anticoagulation therapy; Pseudotumour of the kidney. Br J Radiol 41:180:185, 1968.Google Scholar
  249. 249.
    Curtis JR: Drug-induced renal disease. Drugs 18:377–391, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Graham JR, Suby HI, LeCompte PR, Sadowski NL: Fibro-tic disorders associated with methysergide therapy for headache. N Engl J Med 274:359–368, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    McCluskey DR, Donaldson RA, McGeown MG: Oxypre-nol and retroperitoneal fibrosis. Br Med J 2:1459–1460, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Mazze RI, Trudell JR, Cousins MJ: Methoxyflurane metabolism and renal dysfunction: Clinical correlation in man. Anesthesiology 35:247–252, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Merkle RB, McDonald FD, Murray WJ: Human renal function following methoxyflurane anesthesia. JAMA 218:841–844, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Eichorn JH, Hedley-White J, Steinman TI, Kaufmann JM, Laasberg LH: Renal failure following enflurane anesthesia. Anesthesiology 45:557–560, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Cotton JR, Schwartz MM, Lindley JD, Hunsicker LG: Acute renal failure following halothane anesthesia. Arch Pathol Lab Med 100: 628–629, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Schou M: Litium studies I. Toxicity. Acta Pharmacol 15:70–84, 1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Singer I: Lithium and the Kidney. Kidney Int 19:374–387, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Singer I, Rotenberg D, Puschett JB: Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. In vivo and in vitro studies. J Clin Invest 51:1081–1091, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Hansen HE, Hestbech J, Srensen JL, Norgaard K, Heilskov J, Amdisen A: Chronic interstitial nephropathy in patients on long-term lithium treatment. Q J Med 48:577–591, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Vestergaard P, Amidsen A: Lithium treatment and kidney function. A follow-up study of 237 patients in long-term treatment. Acta Psychiat Scand 63:333–343, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Walker RG, Escott M, Birchall I, Dowling JP, Kincaid-Smith P: Chronic progressive renal lesions induced by lithium. Kidney Int 29:875–881.Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    Christiansen C, Baastrup PC, Lindgreen P, Transbl I: Endocrine effects of lithium: II primary hyperparathyroidism. Acta Endocrinol 88:528–534, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • John F. Maher

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations