Advertisement

A Memory Model of Emotion

  • Lynn P. Rehm
  • Mary J. Naus

Abstract

For a number of years, four theories of depression have predominated in the psychological literature: Peter Lewinsohn’s (1974) behavioral theory, Martin Seligman’s (1974) learned helplessness theory, Lynn Rehm’s (1977) self-control model, and Aaron Beck’s (1972) cognitive theory. These theories have been influential in generating new research and new findings have influenced the theorists to revise and update their theories. For the most part these revisions have been in the direction of adopting more cognitive approaches.

Keywords

Episodic Memory Cognitive Therapy Semantic Memory Memory Model Attributional Style 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abramson, L.Y., Metalsky, G.I., & Alloy, L.B. (1989). The hopelessness theory of depression: A metatheoretical analysis with implications for psychopathology research. Psychological Review, 96, 358–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abramson, L.Y., Seligman, M.E.P., & Teasdale, J.D. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 49–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alba, J. W. & Hasher, L. (1983). Is memory schematic? Psychological Bulletin, 93, 203–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alloy, L.B., Clements, C., & Kolden, G. (1985). The cognitive diathesis-stress theories of depression: Therapeutic implications. In S. Reiss & R.R. Bootzin (Eds.), Theoretical issues in behavior therapy. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, J. R. (1983). A spreading activation theory of emotion. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 261–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K. W. Spence and J.T. Spence (Eds.) Advances in the Psychology of Learning and Motivation. (Vol 2 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  7. Beck, A.T. (1972). Depression: Causes and treatment. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bower, G.H. (1981). Mood and memory. American Psychologist, 36, 129–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bower, G.H. (1983). Affect and cognition. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B302, 387–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bower, G.H. (1987). Commentary on mood and memory. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 25, 443–456.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clark, D.M., & Teasdale, J.D. (1982). Diurnal variation in clinical depression and accessibility of memories of positive and negative experiences. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91, 87–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Craik, F. I. M., & Lockhart, P. S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 104, 268–294.Google Scholar
  13. Craik, F. I. M., & Tulving, E. (1975). Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 104, 268–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Davis, H. (1979a). The self-schema and subjective organization of personal information in depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 3, 415–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Davis, H. (1979b). Self-reference and the encoding of personal information in depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 3, 97–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Davis, H., & Unruh, W.R. (1981). The development of the self-schema in adult depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90, 125–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Deny, P.A., & Kuiper, N.A. (1981). Schematic processing and self-reference in clinical depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90, 286–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ellis, A. (1962). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. New York: Stuart.Google Scholar
  19. Ellis, H.C. (1987). Depression and memory: A resource allocation model. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Ellis, H.C. & Ashbrook, P.W. (1987). Resource allocation model of depressed mood states on memory. In K. Fiedler and J. Forgas (Eds.), Affect, cognition, and social behavior. Toronto: Hagrefe.Google Scholar
  21. Gotlib, I.H. (1983). Perception and recall of interpersonal feedback: Negative bias in depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 7, 399–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hammen, C.L. (1978). Depression, distortion, and life stress in college students. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 2, 189–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hasher, L., & Zachs, R. T. (1979). Automatic and effortful processes in memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 108, 356–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ingram, R.E. (1984). Toward an information-processing analysis of depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 8, 443–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ingram, R.E., & Smith, T.W. (1984). Depression and internal versus external focus of attention. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 8, 139–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Inrgam, R. E., Smith, T. W., & Brehm, S. S. (1983). Depression and information processing: Self-schemata and the encoding of self-referent information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 412–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Izard, C. E. (1977). Human Emotions. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  28. Kahneman, D. (1973). Attention and effort. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  29. Kanfer, F.H. (1970). Self-regulation: Research issues and speculations. In C. Neuringer and J.L. Michael (Eds.), Behavior Modification in Clinical Psychology. New York: Appleton-CenturyCrofts.Google Scholar
  30. Kelly, G.A. (1955). The psychology of personal constructs. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  31. Kintsch, W. (1974). The representation of meaning in memory. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  32. Kuiper, N.A., & Rogers, T.B. (1979). Encoding of personal information: Self-other differences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 499–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kuiper, N.A., & MacDonald, M.R. (1983). Schematic processing in depression: The self-based consensus bias. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 7, 469–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lang, P.J. (1968). Fear reduction and fear behavior: Problems in treating a construct. In J.M. Shlien (Ed.), Research in psychotherapy (Vol. 3 ). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  35. Lang, P.J. (1979). A bio-informational theory of emotional imagery. Psychophysiology, 16, 495–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lang, P.J. (1983). Cognition in emotion: Concept and action. In C. Izard, J. Kagan, & R. Zajonc (Eds.), Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Leight, K.A., & Ellis, H.C. (1981). Emotional mood states, strategies and state-dependency in memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 20, 251–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lewinsohn, P.M. (1974). Clinical and theoretical aspects of depression. In K.S. Calhoun, H.E. Adams, & K.M. Mitchell (Eds.), Innovative treatment methods of psychopathology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  39. Lewinsohn, P.M. (1976). Activity schedules in treatment of depression. In J.D. Krumboltz & C.E. Thoresen, Counseling methods. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  40. Lewinsohn, P.M., & Talkington, J. (1979). Studies on the measurement of unpleasant events and relations with depression. Applied Psychological Measurement, 3, 83–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lewinsohn, P.M., Hoberman, H., Teri, L., & Hautzinger, M. (1985). An integrative theory of depression. In S. Reiss & R. Bootzin (Eds.), Theoretical issues in behavior therapy. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  42. Naus, M. J., & Halasz, F. G. (1978). Developmental perspectives on cognitive processing and semantic memory structure. In L. Cermak and F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Levels of processing and human memory. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  43. Ohman, A., Dimberg, U., & Ost, L.G. (1985). Animal and social phobias: Biological constraints on learned fear responses. In S. Resis & R.R. Bootzin (Eds.), Theoretical issues in behavior therapy. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  44. Osgood, C.E., Suci, G.J., & Tannenbaum, P.A. (1957). The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  45. Rehm, L.P. (1977). A self-control model of depression. Behavior Therapy, 8, 787–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rehm, L.P. (1988). Self-management and cognitive processes in depression. In L.B. Alloy (Ed.), Cognitive processes in depression. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  47. Rogers, C.R. (1951). Client-centered therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  48. Rogers, T.B., Kuiper, N.A., & Kirker, W.S. (1977). Self-reference and the encoding of personal information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 677–688.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Russell, J.A. (1980). A circumplex model of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 1161–1178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Seligman, M.E.P. (1974). Depression and learned helplessness. In R. J. Friedman & M.M. Katz (Eds.), The psychology of depression: Contemporary theory and research. New York: Winston-Wiley.Google Scholar
  51. Seligman, M.E.P. (1975). Helplessness: On depression, development, and death. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  52. Shrauger, J. S., & Terbovic, M. L. (1976). Self-evaluations and assessments of performance by self and others. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44, 564–572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Teasdale, J.D. (1988). Cognitive vulnerability to persistent depression: Cognition and Emotion, 2, 247–274.Google Scholar
  54. Teasdale, J.D., & Fogarty, SJ. (1979). Differential effects of induced mood on retrieval of pleasant and unpleasant events from episodic memory. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 248–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Teasdale, J.D., Taylor, R., & Fogarty, S.J. (1980). Effects of induced elation-depression on the accessibility of memories of happy and unhappy experiences. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 18, 339–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Teasdale, J.D., & Russell, M.L. (1983). Differential effects of induced mood on the recall of positive, negative and neutral words. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 22, 163–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Teasdale, J.D. (1983a). Affect and accessibility. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B302, 403–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Teasdale, J.D. (1983b). Negative thinking in depression: Cause, effect, or reciprocal relationship? Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 5, 27–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tulving, E. (1972). Episodic and semantic memory. In E. Tulving, & W. Donaldson (Eds.), Organization and Memory. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  60. Tulving, E. (1983). Elements of episodic memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Tversky, A. & Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 185, 1124–1131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Watson, D., & Tellegen, A. (1985). Toward a consensual structure of mood. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 219–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Weingartner, H., Miller, H., & Murphy, D.L. (1977). Mood-state-dependent retrieval of verbal associations. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 86, 276–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lynn P. Rehm
    • 1
  • Mary J. Naus
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of HoustonHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations