Modeling the Effect of Sleep-State on Respiratory Stability

  • Michael C. K. Khoo


The recognition that sleep significantly lowers resting ventilation and alters breathing pattern dates back to studies published in the nineteenth century1–4. Mosso4 noted a tendency in sleeping subjects to exhibit a periodic waxing and waning of respiration, similar to the pattern seen during Cheyne-Stokes breathing. Magnussen5 suggested a connection between this phenomenon and the alternating periods of wakefulness and sleep that he observed. Subsequently, with the use of electroencephalography, Aserinsky and Kleitman6 revealed the existence of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and found that these periods were associated with a marked increase in respiratory variability. Bulow7 showed that periodic breathing (PB) often occurred during drowsiness and light NREM sleep, but in the deeper stages of NREM sleep (or slow-wave sleep (SWS)), ventilation became highly regular. These findings have been confirmed by others8,9. However, in some reports10,11, PB has been found to occur during REM sleep as well.


Sleep Stage Controller Gain NREM Sleep Loop Gain Periodic Breathing 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael C. K. Khoo
    • 1
  1. 1.Biomedical Engineering Dept.University of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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