Scale Transformations, the Energy-Momentum Tensor and the Equation of State
The Equation of State (EOS) relates diagonal elements of the energy-momentum tensor θ μv . The first moment of the energy-momentum tensor generates scale transformations. The virial theorem, a consequence of the behavior of the energy density under scale transformations, allows one to eliminate the kinetic energy in terms of the potential terms. The trace theorem for the energy-momentum tensor expresses ∊-3p in terms of ensemble averages of scale-breaking operators, allowing a new approach to the EOS.
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