Use of Promoter Modified Electrodes for Heme Protein Electrochemistry
In recent years, electrochemical studies of proteins such as cytochrome c have become possible by conventional electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry by using several types of electrodes: For example, promoter modified electrodes, of which surfaces are modified by suitable compounds, so-called promoters, for the rapid electron transfer of proteins, have been developed by the author’s group (Taniguchi et al, 1982; Taniguchi et al., 1986b; Taniguchi, 1988); some metal oxides such as indium oxide are also useful (Yeh and Kuwana, 1977; Bowden et al, 1982; Harmer and Hill, 1984); also, in some cases, bare metal electrodes without any surface modification are reported to be used (Bowden et al, 1984; Reed and Hawkridge, 1987; Sun et al., 1988). Among these electrodes, promoter modified electrodes are sometimes more convenient to use than other electrodes, because they can be prepared so easily (e.g., just dipping an electrode into a promoter solution), show very reproducible results, and are applicable under various experimental conditions, when we choose a suitable promoter.
KeywordsGraphite Titration Pyridine Lysine Disulfide
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