Conversion Induced by Transforming Growth Factors α and β: The Role of “Wound Hormones” in Multistage Skin Carcinogenesis

  • Friedrich Marks
  • Gerhard Fürstenberger


The induction of papillomas (and carcinomas) in mouse skin can be experimentally subdivided into the stages initiation, conversion and promotion While initiation is most probably related to gene mutation, conversion is required to render initiated skin sensitive to the tumor promoting effect of agents which induce hyperplastic transformation of skin and sustained epidermal hyperplasia. Traditionally, conversion and promotion are achieved by phorbol ester treatment. Conversion can also be affected by mechanical skin wounding. It is shown that a combined injection of two putative “wound hormones”, i.e. TGFα and TGFβ, converts initiated mouse skin to a promotable state. These results indicate a close relationship between the wound response and skin tumor development.


Epidermal Cell Phorbol Ester Mouse Skin Wound Response NMRI Mouse 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Friedrich Marks
    • 1
  • Gerhard Fürstenberger
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of BiochemistryGerman Cancer Research CenterHeidelbergGermany

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