The Experimental and Theoretical Foundations of Behavior Modification

  • Donald J. Levis

Abstract

Critical issues related to the area of psychological assessment and treatment of human psychological disturbance, which are topics of this volume, have been addressed numerous times in an already vast and extensive published literature. Yet, despite these past efforts, the scholarly search to establish integrative lawful statements about human psychopathology, which lead to increased precision in assessment and treatment, is still an ongoing process. The quest to identify, establish, and develop effective methods of treatment has been retarded, in part, by a mental health field plagued by conceptual diversity, training inadequacies, and a lack of consensus in the need to objectify the validity of a given theoretical model and treatment approach.

Keywords

Placebo Fatigue Depression Mold Schizophrenia 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, M. E. P., &Teasdale, J. P. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 49 –74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agras, W. S. (1987). So where do we go from here? Behavior Therapy, 18, 203 –218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amsel, A. (1958). The role of frustrative nonreward in noncon-tinuous reward situations. Psychological Bulletin, 55, 102 –119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amsel, A. (1971). Frustration, persistence, and regression. In H. D. Kimmel (Ed.), Experimental psychopathology (pp. 51 –69 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bandura, A. (1962). Social learning through imitation. In M. R. Jones (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation (pp. 211 –268 ). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (1978). On paradigms and recycled ideologies. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 2, 79 –103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bekhterev, V. M. (1928). General principles of human reflexology (E. &W. Murphy, Trans.). New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bower, G. H. (1978). Contacts of cognitive psychology with social learning theory. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 2, 123 –146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Breger, L., &McGaugh, J. L. (1965). Critique and reformulation of “learning-theory” approaches to psychotherapy and neurosis. Psychological Bulletin, 63, 338 –358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown, J. S. (1969). Factors influencing self-punitive locomotor behavior. In B. A. Campbell &R. M. Church (Eds.), Punishment and aversive behavior (pp. 467 –514 ). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, J. S., &Jacobs, A. (1949). The role of fear in the motivation and acquisition of responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 39, 747 –759.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown, J. S., Kalish, H. I., &Farber, I. E. (1951). Conditioned fear as revealed by magnitude of startle response to an auditory stimulus. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 41, 317 –328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Church, R. M. (1963). The varied effects of punishment on behavior. Psychological Review, 70, 369 –402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cooper, A., Fuurst, J. B., &Bridger, W. H. (1969). A brief commentary on the usefulness of studying fears of snakes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 74, 413 –414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Denny, M. R. (1971). Relaxation theory and experiments. In F. R. Brush (Ed.), Aversive conditioning and learning (pp. 235 –295 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  16. Denny, M. R. (1976). Post-aversive relief and relaxation and their implications for behavior therapy. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 7, 315 –322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dinsmoor, J. A. (1983). Observing and conditioned reinforcement. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 6, 693 –728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dollard, J., &Miller, N. E. (1950). Personality and psychotherapy. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  19. Eysenck, H. J. (Ed.) (1960). Behaviour therapy and the neuroses. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  20. Eysenck, H. J. (1966). The effects of psychotherapy. New York: International Science Press.Google Scholar
  21. Eysenck, H. J. (1968). A theory of the incubation of anxiety fear responses. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 6, 309 –322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Eysenck, H. J. (1976). The learning theory model of neurosis— A new approach. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 14, 251 –267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eysenck, H. J. (1979). The conditioning model of neurosis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2, 155 –166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Feigl, H. (1953). The scientific outlook: Naturalism and humanism. In H. Fiegl &M. Brodbeck (Eds.), Readings in the philosophy of science (pp. 8 –18 ). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  25. Ferster, C. B., &Skinner, B. F. (1957). Schedules of reinforcement. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ford, D. H., &Urban, H. B. (1967). Psychotherapy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 17, 333 –372.Google Scholar
  27. Goldstein, A., &Foa, E. B. (Eds.). (1980). Handbook of behavioral interventions: A clinical guide. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  28. Greenspoon, J. (1965). Learning theory contributions to psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 2, 145 –146.Google Scholar
  29. Guthrie, E. R. (1935). The psychology of learning. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  30. Hall, C, &Lindzey, G. (1957). Theories of personality. New York: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Herrnstein, R. (1969). Method and theory in the study of avoidance. Psychological Review, 76, 49 –69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hersen, M., &Bellack, A. S. (Eds.). (1988). Dictionary of behavioral assessment techniques. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  33. Hilgard, E. R., &Bower, G. H. (1966). Theories of learning. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  34. Hull, C. L. (1943). Principles of behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  35. Hull, C. L. (1952). A behavior system: An introduction to behavior therapy concerning the individual organism. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Jacobson, E. (1938). Progressive relaxation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  37. Jones, M. C. (1924). The elimination of children’s fears. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 7, 383 –390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kalish, H. I. (1965). Behavior therapy. In B. Wolman (Ed.), Handbook of clinical psychology (pp. 1230 –1253 ). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  39. Kalish, H. I. (1981). From behavioral science to behavior modification. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  40. Kazdin, A. E. (1978). History of behavior modification: Experimental foundations of contemporary research. Baltimore: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  41. Kimble, G. A. (1961). Hilgard and Marquis’ conditioning and learning. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  42. Kinsey, A., Pomeroy, W., &Martin, C. (1948). Sexual behavior in the human male. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  43. Krasner, L. (1985). Review of A. S. Bellack, M. Hersen, &A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), International handbook of behavior modification and therapy (New York: Plenum Press, 1982). Behavior Therapist, 13–14.Google Scholar
  44. Lemkow, P. V., &Crocetti, G. M. (1958). Vital statistics of schizophrenia. In L. Bellak (Ed.), Schizophrenia: A review of the syndrome. New York: Grune &Stratton.Google Scholar
  45. Levis, D. J. (1970a). Behavioral therapy: The fourth therapeutic revolution? In D. J. Levis (Ed.), Learning approaches to therapeutic behavior change (pp. 1 –35 ). Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  46. Levis, D. J. (1970b). The case for performing research on nonpatient populations with fears of small animals: A reply to Cooper, Fürst, and Bridger. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 76, 36 –38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Levis, D. J. ( 1974, November). The psychological clinic: A survey and a point of view. Professional Psychology, 421 –428.Google Scholar
  48. Levis, D. J. (1976). Learned helplessness: A reply and an alternative S-R interpretation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 105, 47 –65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Levis, D. J. (1979). A reconsideration of Eysenck’s conditioning model of neurosis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2, 172 –174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Levis, D. J. (1980). Do cognitive constructs enhance or threaten the survival of clinical behaviorism? In W. W. Tryon, C. B. Ferester, C. M. Franks, A. E. Kazdin, D. J. Levis, &G. S. Tryon, On the role of behaviorism in clinical psychology. Pavlovian Journal of Biological Science, 15, 15 –17.Google Scholar
  51. Levis, D. J. (1988). Observation and experience from clinical practice: A critical ingredient for advancing behavioral theory and therapy. Behavior Therapist, 11, 95 –99.Google Scholar
  52. Levis, D. J. (1989). The case for a return to a two-factor theory of avoidance. The failure of non-fear interpretations. In S. B. Klein &R. R. Mowrer (Eds.), Contemporary learning theories, Vol. 1. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  53. Levis, D. J. &Boyd, T. L. (1979). Symptom maintenance: An infrahuman analysis and extension of the conservation of anxiety principle. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 107 –120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Levis, D. J., &Hare, N. (1977). A review of the theoretical rationale and empirical support for the extinction approach of implosive (flooding) therapy. In M. Hersen, R. M. Eisler, &P. M. Miller (Eds.), Progress in behavior modification (Vol. 4, pp. 299 –376 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  55. Logan, F. A. (1971). Dominance and aggression. In H. D. Kimmel (Ed.), Experimental psychopathology (pp. 185 –201 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  56. Mackintosh, N. J. (1974). The psychology of animal learning. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  57. Mahoney, J. J. (1977). Cognitive therapy and research: A question of questions. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1, 5 –16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Maier, S. F., &Seligman, M. E. P. (1976). Learned helplessness: Theory and evidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 105, 3 –46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Miller, N. E. (1948). Studies of fear as an acquirable drive: I. Fear as motivation and fear-reduction as reinforcement in the learning of a new response. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38, 89 –101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Miller, N. E. (1951). Learnable drive and rewards. In S. S. Stevens (Ed.), Handbook of experimental psychology (pp. 435 –472 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  61. Miller, N. E. (1959). Liberalization of basic S-R concepts: Extensions to conflict behavior, motivation and social learning. In S. Koch (Ed.), Psychology: A study of a science (Vol. 2, pp. 196 –292 ). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  62. Mowrer, O. H. (1940). Anxiety-reduction and learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 27, 297 –516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mowrer, O. H. (1947). On the dual nature of learning—A reinterpretation of “conditioning” and “problem-solving”. Harvard Educational Reviewl, 17, 102 –148.Google Scholar
  64. Mowrer, O. H. (1950). Pain, punishment, guilt, and anxiety. In Anxiety. New York: Grune &Stratton.Google Scholar
  65. Mowrer, O. H. (1960). Learning theory and behavior. New York: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pavlov, I. P. (1927). Conditioned reflexes. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Rescorla, R. A. (1969). Pavlovian conditioned inhibition. Psychological Bulletin, 72, 77 –94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rescorla, R. A., &LoLordo, M. (1965). Inhibition of avoidance behavior. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 59, 406 –412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rescorla, R. A., &Solomon, R. L. (1967). Two-process learning theory: Relationships between Pavlovian conditioning and instrumental learning. Psychological Review, 74, 151 –182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rescorla, R. A., &Wagner, R. R. (1972). A theory of Pavlovian conditioning variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and nonreinforcement. In A. H. Black &W. F. Prokasy (Eds.), Classical conditioning: Vol. 2. Current research and theory (pp. 64 –99 ). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  71. Rotter, J. B. (1954). Social learning and clinical psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  72. Rotter, J. B. (1970). Some implications of a social learning theory for the practice of psychotherapy. In D. J. Levis (Ed.), Learning approaches to therapeutic behavior change (pp. 208 –241 ). Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  73. Salter, A. (1949). Conditioned reflex therapy. New York: Farrar, Straus.Google Scholar
  74. Salter, A. (1965). The theory and practice of conditioned reflex therapy. In J. Wolpe, A. Salter, L. J. Reyna (Eds.), The conditioning therapies (pp. 211 –268 ). New York: Holt, Rinehart &Winston.Google Scholar
  75. Seligman, M. E. P. (1971). Phobias and preparedness. Behavior Therapy, 2, 307 –320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Seligman, M. E. P. (1975). Helplessness: On depression, development and death. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  77. Seligman, M. E. P., &Johnston, J. C. (1973). A cognitive theory of avoidance learning. In F. J. McGuigan &D. B. Lumsden (Eds.), Contemporary prospectives in learning and conditioning (pp. 69 –110 ). Washington: Scripta Press.Google Scholar
  78. Sherrington, CS. (1947). The integrative action of the central nervous system. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Shoben, E. J., (1949). Psychotherapy as a problem in learning theory. Psychological Bulletin, 46, 366 –392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sidman, M. (1953). Two temporal parameters of the maintenance of avoidance behavior in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 46, 253 –261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Skinner, B. F. (1938). The behavior of organisms: An experimental analysis. New York: Appleton-Century.Google Scholar
  82. Skinner, B. F. (1945). The operational analysis of psychological terms. Psychological Review, 52, 270 –278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Skinner, B. F. (1950). Are theories of learning necessary? Psychological Review, 57, 193 –216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Skinner, B. F. (1984). The shame of American education. American Psychologist, 39, 947 –954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Solomon, R. L., &Wynne, L. C. (1954). Traumatic avoidance learning: The principle of anxiety conservation and partial irreversibility. Psychological Review, 61, 353 –385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Spence, K. W. (1951). Theoretical interpretations of learning. In C. P. Stone (Ed.), Comparative psychology (pp. 239 –291 ). New York: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  87. Srole, L., Langner, T. S., Michael, S. T, Opler, M. K, &Rennie, T. A. (1962). Mental health in the metropolis: Mid-town Manhattan Study (Vol. 1). New York: McGraw-Hill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Stampfl, T. G. (1970). Comment. In D. J. Levis (Ed.), Learning approaches to therapeutic behavior change (pp. 102 –107 ). Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  89. Stampfl, T. G. (1983). Exposure treatment for psychiatrists? Review of J. C. Boulougouris (Ed.) (1982), Learning theory approaches to psychiatry. New York: Wiley. Contemporary Psychology, 28, 527–529.Google Scholar
  90. Stampfl, T. G. (1987). Theoretical implications of the neurotic paradox as a problem in behavior therapy: An experimental resolution. Behavior Analyst, 10, 161 –173.Google Scholar
  91. Stampfl, T. G., &Levis, D. J. (1967). The essentials of implosive therapy: A learning-theory-based psychodynamic behavioral therapy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 72, 496 –503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Stampfl, T. G., &Levis, D. J. (1969). Learning theory: An aid to dynamic therapeutic practice. In L. D. Eron &R. Callahan (Eds.), Relationship of theory to practice in psychotherapy (pp. 85 –114 ). Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  93. Stampfl, T. G., &Levis, D. J. (1976). Implosive therapy: A behavioral therapy. In J. T. Spence, R. C. Carson, &J. W. Thibaut (Eds.), Behavioral approaches to therapy (pp. 89 –110 ). Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.Google Scholar
  94. Thorndike, E. L. (1911). Animal intelligence. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  95. Thorndike, E. L. (1931). Human learning. New York: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tolman, E. C. (1932). Purposive behavior in animals and man. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  97. Tourney, G. (1967). A history of therapeutic fashions in psychiatry, 1800–1966. American Journal of Psychiatry, 124 (6), 784 –796.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Turner, S. M., Hersen, M, &Beidel, D. C. (1988). On becoming a clinical researcher: Another view. APA Monitor, 19, 4.Google Scholar
  99. Watson, J. B., &Rayner, R. (1920). Conditioned emotional reaction. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3, 1 –4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wolpe, J. (1958). Psychotherapy by reciprocal inhibition. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  101. Wolpe, J. (1978). Cognition and causation in human behavior and its therapy. American Psychologist, 33, 437 –446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald J. Levis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyState University of New York at BinghamtonBinghamtonUSA

Personalised recommendations